Pagina principale Knowledge Genius

Knowledge Genius

Anno: 2019
Editore: DK Publishing
Lingua: english
Pagine: 194
File: PDF, 78.89 MB
Download (pdf, 78.89 MB)
Leggi il libro online

You may be interested in

 

Most frequently terms

 
 
You can write a book review and share your experiences. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them.
KNOWLEDGE

GENIUS!

DK Delhi
Senior Editor Bharti Bedi Senior Art Editor Shreya Anand
Project Editor Neha Ruth Samuel Art Editor Nidhi Rastogi
Assistant Editors Bipasha Roy, Manan Kapoor
Assistant Art Editors Baibhav Parida, Sanya Jain, Srishti Arora
Jacket Designer Tanya Mehrotra
Jackets Editorial Coordinator Priyanka Sharma
Senior DTP Designer Harish Aggarwal
DTP Designers Pawan Kumar, Vijay Khandwal
Picture Researcher Rituraj Singh
Managing Jackets Editor Saloni Singh
Pre-production Manager Balwant Singh
Production Manager Pankaj Sharma
Picture Research Manager Taiyaba Khatoon
Managing Editor Kingshuk Ghoshal
Managing Art Editor Govind Mittal

DK London
Editor Jessica Cawthra
Designer Gregory McCarthy
Senior Designer Rachael Grady
Editorial team Vicky Richards, Ann Baggaley
US Editor Megan Douglass
US Executive Editor Lori Cates Hand
Jacket Designers Stephanie Cheng Hue Tan, Akiko Kato
Jacket Editor Emma Dawson
Jacket Design Development Manager Sophia MTT
Producer, Pre-production Gillian Reid
Senior Producer Angela Graef
Managing Editor Francesca Baines
Managing Art Editor Philip Letsu
Publisher Andrew Macintyre
Associate Publishing Director Liz Wheeler
Art Director Karen Self
Design Director Phil Ormerod
Publishing Director Jonathan Metcalf
First American Edition, 2019
Published in the United States by DK Publishing
1450 Broadway, Suite 801, New York, NY 10018
Copyright © 2019 Dorling Kindersley Limited
DK, a Division of Penguin Random House LLC
19 20 21 22 23 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
001–313197–April/2019
All rights reserved.
Without limiting the rights under the copyright
reserved above, no part of this publication may
be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a
retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by
any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or otherwise), without the prior written
permission of the copyright owner.
Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited
A catalog record for this book is available
from the Library of Congress.
ISBN: 978-1-4654-8134-4
; DK books are available at special discounts when purchased
in bulk for sales promotions, premiums, fund-raising, or educational use.
For details, contact: DK Publishing Special Markets, 1450 Broadway,
Suite 801, New York, NY 10018
SpecialSales@dk.com
Printed and bound in China

A WORLD OF IDEAS:
SEE ALL THERE IS TO KNOW
www.dk.com

KNOWLEDGE

GENIUS!
Contributors: Peter Chrisp, Clive Gifford, Derek Harvey,
Andrea Mills, and John Woodward

CONTENTS

1 SCIENCE GEEK
Space
Planet parade
Space travelers
The elements
Simply elementary
The human body
Know your bones
Under the microscope
Math
Shape up!
Transportation
On the road
All aboard!
Taking to the skies
All at sea

2 NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38

Dinosaurs
Clawed carnivores
Plant-eating giants
Prehistoric creatures
Mammals
Know your cats
Primate party
Aquatic mammals
Invertebrates
Insects everywhere
Under the sea
Arachnids assemble
Birds
Birds of a feather
Deadly hunters
Reptiles
Reptile room
Scaly serpents

42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
76

3 GEOGRAPHY GENIUS
Amphibians
Amazing amphibians
Fish
Freshwater fish
Marine life
Animal behavior
Tricky tracks
Get cracking
Eye spy
Plants
Flower power
Fruit and nuts
Plant food

78
80
82
84
86
88
90
92
94
96
98
100
102

Earth
High seas
World waterways
Peak puzzle
Wonders of the world
Countries of the world
Cities
Cool constructions
City skylines
Capital cities
Eye in the sky
Flags
Raise the flag
Weather
Cloud watching
Rocks and minerals
Rock stars
Precious gemstones

4 HISTORY BUFF
106
108
110
112
114
116
118
120
122
124
126
128
130
132
134
136
138
140

Ancient civilizations
Lost cities
Guess the gods
Mythical creatures
Castles
Hold the fort
Battle ready!
Fighting fashion
Leaders
Famous faces

144
146
148
150
152
154
156
158
160
162

5 CULTURE VULTURE
Art
Gallery of the greats
Playing the classics
Making music
Languages
Greetings!
Sports
On the ball
Game on!
Sports store
Your turn!

166
168
170
172
174
176
178
180
182
184
186

Index
Acknowledgments

188
192

How this
book works

01.

Choose your topic. There are five
chapters on a wide range of subjects and
lots of different quizzes. Perhaps start with
one that you know all about, and then
move on to something new.

Welcome to this fact-packed, quiz-filled
challenge. Top up with some new knowledge
and then put your brain to the test by
matching the picture clues with the answers.
Can you identify your insects? Do you know
the names of the bones in your body? Can
you figure out which warrior’s weapon is
which? It’s time to find out!

130

1 A sun with
32 rays adorns
the flag of South
America’s secondbiggest country.

First brush up on the basics
with these pages of fun facts.
Filled with both essential and
curious information, these will
warm up your brain for the
quizzes that follow.

Raise
the flag

Parts of a f lag

02.

Flags

Find a
good new spot. Six
Apollo missions have
planted flags on the
Moon, and they are
all still there today.

Flags developed out of the coat of arms
that armies carried into battle. Some
countries have used the same flag design
for centuries while others have changed
their look. Afghanistan, for instance, has
had more than 20 different flags in the
past 150 years!

03.
Try to plant
the flag pole into the
lunar surface—this is
not easy, the ground
is very hard.

01.

I don’t
believe it

22,152 sq ft

(2,058 sq m) The area of a
Mexican flag made in 2011.
The biggest flag ever flown
from a flag pole, its area was
bigger than 7 tennis courts.

13,979 ft

(4,261 m) The distance
below sea level that the
Mir-1 submersible dived to
plant a Russian flag at the
bottom of the Arctic Ocean
in 2007.

12

The most colors found
on a national flag, those of
San Marino and Ecuador.

There’s no
wind on the Moon to
fly a flag. Get engineers
to place a wire into a
hem sewn into the top
of the flag so it will stick
out straight.

The 27 stars on Brazil’s flag show the
pattern in the night sky above the city
of Rio de Janeiro on November 15,
1889—Brazil’s independence day.

fo
ur s
ides.

an

ti
on
al

Field
The basic
background
color of
the flag.

Flags come in a great variety of colors, patterns, and
designs, but they all share the same features and parts.

Flag study

Vexillology is the name given to
the study of flags. It comes from
the latin word vexillum, meaning
“flag.” Vexillologists even have
their own flag (above).

h
et
or
fag
that has m

Jamaica is the only country
with a national flag that does not
feature the colors red, white, or blue.
The latest design of the US
flag was adopted in 1960 and was
created by 17-year-old Robert G. Heft
as a school assignment. He only earned
a B- grade in class!
At the 1936 Olympics, Haiti and
Liechtenstein discovered their national
flags were the same. Liechtenstein
later added a crown to their flag.
All official national flags in India
are made in one factory in Bengeri
village, in the state of Karnataka.

04.

Check the
pole really is firm—
in 1969, when the
spacecraft left, the
blast of the engines
knocked the flag over!

Where else are flags used?
Star state
Each of the stars on the
US flag represents one of
the 50 US states. Over
time, as states joined the
union of American states,
the flag has had more
than 25 changes.

Regional: A giant
holding a club
features on the
flag of the Finnish
region of Lapland.

State: All 50
states in the US,
including Arizona
(above), have
their own flag.

Sports: A
checkered flag
is waved to signal
the end of many
motor races.

Organizations: The
United Nations flag
features olive leaves,
representing peace.

Pirates: Skulls
and swords were
designed to strike
fear into other
ships’ crews.

In many countries it’s against
the law to damage or destroy
the national flag. In France, for
example, the punishment is up
to six months in prison, while
in Israel the punishment can
be up to three years in prison.
In Denmark it is against
the law to destroy the flags
of other countries but not Denmark’s
own national flag.

Flag laws

na
ly
on
is the
fag

The first flag to fly on the Moon was a US flag
bought for just $5.50. It was placed inside an
aluminum tube and flown to the Moon
on board the Apollo 11 spacecraft in 1969.

A bird of
paradise stars on
this South Pacific
island flag, designed
by a 15-year-old
schoolgirl in 1971.
9

l’s

Hoist
The part of the flag closest to the staff.

Nepa

How to plant a
flag on the Moon
Fly
The part of
the flag
farthest from
the staff.

8 The country known for its cher
blossom season and very fast tra
features a crimson sun on its flag

Red symbolizes
“brightness”
129

Charge
An emblem on the flag.

mou
E
nation
the fe
sq

6 Spears and a
shield are said to
protect this African
nation’s people.

Every nation of the world flies their own flag
design. Each has been chosen to reflect the
country’s history, colors, and identity. They
represent the pride of the people, uniting
everyone under one big banner.

GEOGRAPHY GENIUS
Staff
The flag pole a flag
hangs from.

In numbers

4 This flag flies in a country that’s home
to more than 1,400 million people.

Then it’s time to test yourself.
Take a look at the pictures and
the list of answers in the panel
down the side and try to
match them up. Follow these
four steps for the best way
to tackle things.

FLAG FACTS

128

2 Traditional carpet weaving
patterns are part of this former
Soviet republic’s flag.

5 This nation manufactures the highest
number of cars in all of Europe.

Next the
challenge
Facts first

GEOGRAPHY GENIUS

10 A thunder dragon dominates
the flag of this rugged,
mountainous Asian kingdom.

According to Finnish law,
when a national flag of
Finland is washed, it can only
be dried indoors.

12 The eagle sitting on a cactus is based
Some countries have rules
on historic
symbols
about what
time of theof
daythe Aztec empire.
their flag can be flown. In Iceland,
for instance, the flag must never
be raised before seven o’clock in
the morning.

13 This country is famed for its
African wildlife and its Maasai peoples
whose shield is found on the flag.

11 Th
this A

03.
Look at the “Test Yourself” panel
and match the words and pictures. Don’t write

02.

When you’ve chosen a quiz, take
a careful look at the pictures. Do you
recognize them all? The clues will give
you extra information to help you
figure things out.

the answers in the book—you may want to
take the quiz again later to improve your
score, or give it to a friend to see how they do.

131

This
untainous
European
n is one of
ew to fly a
quare flag.

16 Formed by
freed slaves,
this African
state based
its design on
the US flag.

This island kingdom’s flag
was formed by combining
three flags into one.

The flag of the world’s
biggest country and hosts
of the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
18

17 All the official
flags of this nation
are made of khadi—
a cloth popularized by
Mahatma Gandhi.

CHALLENGER

7

15 Depicting the many colors of the “rainbow
nation,” this flag first flew in 1994, the year in
which Nelson Mandela became its president.

TEST YOURSELF

STARTER

3

This country, which
the Amazon river flows
through, has the words
“Order and Progress”
on its flag.
19

GENIUS!

rry
ains
g.

The circular symbol at the
center of this Asian nation’s flag
means balance in the universe.
21

his flag was first flown in 1960, when
African country became independent.

22 The world’s best-known longdistance cycling race has been
hosted by this nation since 1903.

United Kingdom
Japan
Switzerland
Canada
South Africa
China
Brazil
France
Greece

Australia
Argentina
Russian Federation
Nigeria
Turkey
Mexico
India
Germany
Italy

Liberia
Kenya
Bhutan
Turkmenistan
South Korea
Papua New Guinea
Saudi Arabia
Swaziland
Peru

Start off easy ...
These answers
should be the
easiest to figure out.

Getting harder ...
How about these
harder answers?
Can you match
them, too?

Truly tricky
If you can figure out
these final answers
it’s official—you’re
a genius!!

20 Blue represents the
Mediterranean Sea on the
flag of this land of ancient
gods, where the first
Olympic Games took place.
23 A maple leaf reflects
the large forests found in
this North American nation.

24 The shahādah (a Muslim statement
of faith) is written in Arabic on this
oil-producing nation’s flag.

The colors of the ancient Inca
civilization are depicted on this
Andean nation’s flag.

14

25 This country is famously
shaped like a boot when
looked at from space.

26 Southern hemisphere stars
dot the flag of a country
famous for its kangaroos.

27 A crossroads
between Europe and
Asia, this country’s flag
features an Islamic
star and crescent
moon symbols.

ANSWERS: 1. Argentina 2. Turkmenistan 3. Switzerland 4. China 5. Germany 6. Swaziland 7. United Kingdom 8. Japan 9. Papua New Guinea 10. Bhutan 11. Nigeria 12. Mexico
13. Kenya 14. Peru 15. South Africa 16. Liberia 17. India 18. Russian Federation 19. Brazil 20. Greece 21. South Korea 22. France 23. Canada 24. Saudi Arabia 25. Italy 26. Australia 27. Turkey

No peeking!
You’ll find the answers
matched with the
number of the correct
picture, at the bottom
of the page.

04.

Work your way through the three
levels of difficulty—it’s not supposed to
be easy! When you think you have got
them all, check the answers—they’re
upside-down at the bottom of the page.

05.
There is also a picture quiz for
every chapter, from spotting an insect to

finding your way through a maze. Check
you’ve got it right in the Answers section
at the back of the book.

SCIENCE
GEEK

1

Star hunter
Studying the night sky has helped scientists
discover many wonders in our universe.
Can you find the constellation of Orion the
hunter in this starry scene? Start by looking
for three bright stars in a line that make up
his belt. Nearby, more stars form his body.

Nucleus: A
solid center
made of ice,
dust, and rock.

I don’t believe it

Dust tail: Dust released
from the comet forms a
tail, which trails behind
the comet’s path.

Spiral galaxy
A galaxy shaped like a giant
disk with a round center
and long, curving arms is
known as a spiral galaxy.
The arms of NGC 1566,
for example, are full of
dust and young stars.

Elliptical galaxy
Shaped like a ball
or an egg, elliptical
galaxies, such as
Fornax, have little
gas or dust.

Delta IV Heavy: This
powerful American
launch vehicle is
236 ft (72 m) tall.

Parker Solar Probe:
This is the only part
that will actually
reach the sun.

Coma: A cloud of
gas and dust that
surrounds the nucleus,
when the comet heats up.

These dirty snowballs, made of ice and dust,
travel around the sun in oval orbits. When they
pass close to the sun, the ice heats up forming
long tails of dust and gas.

What is a comet?

A giant star, called RMC 136a1, is about
32 times larger than the sun and shines
around eight million times more brightly!

Galaxies galore

Our home galaxy
contains between
200 and 400
billion stars!

Milky Way

Gas tail: The gas from
the comet that stretches
out a long way behind
the nucleus, pointing
almost directly away
from the sun.

is
so
bi
gt
ha
t1
.3 m
illio
n Ea
rths
could f
t inside it.

The solar system formed around 4.6 billion
years ago from a ball of gas and dust. At its
center lies a star called the sun. Eight planets
orbit the sun along oval-shaped paths.

Solar System

Everything in the universe—from the tiniest specks
of dust to large balls of burning gas called stars—
exists in the vastness of space. Scattered throughout
space are collections of millions of stars called
galaxies. Within galaxies, many stars are orbited
by rocky, icy, or gassy worlds called planets.
Our planet, Earth, orbits a star called the sun.

Space

su
n

e
Th

In numbers

The distance to Proxima Centauri—
the nearest star to Earth after the sun.

4.2 light years

The average age of a comet.

4.6 billion years

The diameter of the Andromeda
galaxy—the nearest major galaxy
to the Milky Way.

260,000 light years

(299,792 km) The distance that light
travels in a single second—a unit known
as a light year.

186,282 miles

(800,000 km/h) The speed at which
the solar system is swirling around the
core of the Milky Way galaxy.

500,000 mph

(149.6 million km) The average distance
between Earth and the sun.

92.9 million miles

Irregular galaxy
These are galaxies
with no obvious
shape. They may
have been pulled
out of shape by a
close encounter with
another galaxy. Seen
here is Barnard’s Galaxy.

Lenticular galaxy
Some galaxies, such
as NGC 5010, have
no curved arms,
just a bulge in the
middle, which
makes them look
like a glass lens.

04.

Once closer, the
sun’s gravitational force will
help the probe reach speeds
of up to 428,750 mph
(690,000 km/h) and pull it
in—so make sure you’re
ready to record the data it
receives and relays to Earth.

The rocket booster
contains 441,806 lb
(200,400 kg) of fuel,
which is all burned
up in just four minutes
after lift-off.

The temperatures of Kepler186f (right), discovered in
2014, mean liquid water could
exist there —the key to supporting
life. It’s now hoped that another
exoplanet might be found, which
does host life.

The exoplanet HD 80606b
also lies very close to its star.
As a result, the temperature on its
surface is almost 3,990°F (2,200°C)—
enough to melt most metals.

The exoplanet WASP-12b takes
just 26 hours to travel around
its star. Earth, in contrast, takes
3651⁄4 days to orbit the sun.

In the 1990s, planets orbiting
other stars—called exoplanets—
were discovered. By 2018, around
3,791 exoplanets had been found.

and fall away, leaving the probe to
travel toward the sun.

03.
During the launch, the
booster rockets will use their fuel

Make sure there are two parts to your
spacecraft—a probe, to be sent to the sun, and a
giant launch vehicle, like the Delta IV Heavy shown
here, to get the probe into space.

02.

Construct a suitable spacecraft, like the
Parker Solar Probe that launched in 2018 and is
expected to fly through the sun’s atmosphere, and
make its closest approach to the Sun in 2025.

01.

How to get to the sun

Exoplanet facts

Planet
parade
The sun is a star. Eight planets travel
around it, along with many asteroids,
dwarf planets, and comets, all following
oval paths called orbits—and known
together as the solar system. Rocky bodies
called moons orbit many of the planets.

The Great Red Spot
is a storm more than
10,160 miles (16,350 km)
wide swirling in the
planet’s atmosphere.

Orbits the sun in
just 88 Earth days
at 105,944 mph
(170,500 km/h)

1 The smallest of
the planets, and the
closest one to the
sun, this rocky world
shares its name with
a chemical element.

Surface hidden
by thick clouds,
some of which rain
deadly sulfuric acid.

Water covers more
than two-thirds
of the surface of
this planet.
Craters scar the
surface, made
by impact with
countless meteorites.

2 A stormy world, the
surface temperature on
this planet can rocket
to a blistering 867ºF
(464ºC) which is hot
enough to melt lead.

3 The third planet
from the sun, this
is the only place
in the universe
where life is
known to exist.

4 This object
was visited by 12
astronauts in Apollo
spacecraft between
1969 and 1972.

5 Also known as the
red planet because
of its rusty, iron rocks,
more spacecraft have
been sent to this
world than any other.

6 The solar system’s
largest planet is so
big more than 1,300
Earths could fit inside.
It is orbited by almost
70 moons.

13

GENIUS!

This gas giant is the
least dense planet in
the solar system—it is
lighter than water.

CHALLENGER

The surface temperature
of the sun is 9,930°F
(5,500°C).

STARTER

TEST YOURSELF
Earth
Mars
Moon
Jupiter

Saturn
Venus
Mercury
Neptune

Titan
Uranus
Io
Ganymede

The band of main rings
extends for 174,000
miles (280,000 km), but
for the most part is just
33 ft (10 m) thick.

Most planets rotate
upright, like a top, but
this one spins on its side.

8 Discovered by the Italian astronomer
Galileo in 1610, this yellow moon is
home to more than 400 active volcanoes.

9 Spectacular
rings of dust,
rock, and ice
encircle this
gas giant.

10 Second
largest in the solar
system, this moon
is bigger than the
planet Mercury.

11 This giant ball of
gas with an icy core
takes 84 Earth years
to orbit the sun.

12 The farthest
planet from the sun,
it was named after a
god of the sea for its
deep-blue color.

ANSWERS: 1. Mercury 2. Venus 3. Earth 4. Moon 5. Mars 6. Jupiter
7. Ganymede 8. Io 9. Saturn 10. Titan 11. Uranus 12. Neptune

7 The largest moon in the solar system,
it is 3,270 miles (5,262 km) across.

14
2 This 1972
American space
probe was the first
to travel past Mars
and through the
Asteroid Belt to take
photos of Jupiter.

3 Launched in 1957, the first
human-made object to travel into
space made 1,400 orbits around
Earth. It gets its name from the
Russian word for “fellow traveler.”
1 Launched in 1973, this was the first
probe to fly close to the planet Mercury.
It also traveled to Venus!

Space
travelers

A laser in the head turns
rocks into dust and gas, to
reveal the rocks’ composition.

The development of powerful rocket engines
in the 1950s enabled spacecraft and, later,
people to explore space. The voyages made by
these remarkable spacecraft—both manned
and unmanned—have taught us much
about the universe.

The spacecraft was
almost 364 ft (111 m)
tall—as high as some
36-floor buildings.

The size of a motor car, this
rover has been exploring the
surface of Mars since 2012. It
carries 17 cameras and a host
of scientific instruments.
4

Cone-shaped
Command
Module held
three astronauts

Antenna dish sent
signals from the
Moon to Earth

Solar panels
generate electricity

5 The world’s
biggest and most
powerful launch vehicle
was made up of three
rockets, or “stages.” It launched
missions carrying astronauts to the
Moon between 1969 and 1972.
6 This small Chinese rover landed on the surface of
the Moon in 2013 and explored it for 31 months. Its
name comes from the Chinese for “jade rabbit.”

ANSWERS: 1. Mariner 10 2. Pioneer 10 3. Sputnik 1 4. Curiosity 5. Saturn V 6. Yutu 7. Cassini–Huygens
8. Space Shuttle 9. Apollo 11 Lunar Module 10. Voyager 1 11. International Space Station 12. Long March 3A

15
Five of these reusable
spacecraft flew more than
130 NASA space missions
between them. They launched
like rockets but glided back to
Earth to land on runways like
planes. The last of these
spacecraft retired in 2011.

8

STARTER
CHALLENGER

Antenna is 12 ft
(3.7 m) across

GENIUS!

7 The largest spacecraft to visit
another planet, this probe had two
parts—one that orbited Saturn for
13 years and another that was
parachuted down onto Saturn’s
largest moon, Titan.

TEST YOURSELF
International Space
Station
Space Shuttle
Sputnik 1
Saturn V

Pioneer 10
Voyager 1
Apollo 11
Lunar Module
Curiosity

Yutu
Cassini–Huygens
Long March 3A
Mariner 10

Now more than 131⁄2 billion miles
(21.7 billion km) away, this probe is
the farthest spacecraft from Earth. It
was launched in 1977 to explore the
giant planets Jupiter and Saturn.
10

9 Nicknamed “Eagle,” this
spacecraft carried Neil Armstrong
and Buzz Aldrin, the first humans to
stand on the lunar surface in 1969.
The lower section of the spacecraft
was left behind on the Moon.

The largest human-made object
in space, at 357 ft (109 m) across, this
machine is home to up to six
astronauts, who live and conduct
experiments on board.

11

Smaller modules
are built on
Earth and joined
together in space.

This 170-ft- (52-m-) tall
Chinese rocket was built
to launch communication
satellites. It also launched
China’s first mission
to the Moon in 2007.
12

SCIENCE GEEK

16

The elements
2

Everything around us is made up of simple
substances called elements. Each one is made
up of tiny particles called atoms, which are
unique for every element. When two or more
elements combine, they form a compound.
For example, sodium and chlorine combine
to form sodium chloride, or common salt.

19

V

5

K
37

Rb
55

38

39

Ca
Sr

87

Ba
88

Fr

Ra

Sc

Ti
40

Y
57–71

La-Lu
89–103

Ac-Lr

Zr
72

Hf
104

Rf
57

La
89

Since the 1700s, scientists have been
discovering new elements.

Timeline

Ac

24

V
41

Nb
73

Cr
42

Mo
74

Ta
105

Db
58

W
106

Sg
59

Ce
90

Th

Pr
91

Pa

25

26

Mn
43

Fe
44

Tc
75

Ru
76

Re
107

Bh
60

108

Hs

92

Pm
93

U

Np

28

Co
45

Ni
46

Rh
77

Os

61

Nd

27

Pd
78

Ir
109

Mt
62

Sm
94

Pu

Pt
110

Ds
63

Eu
95

Am

29

30

Cu
47

Zn
48

Ag
79

Cd
80

Au
111

Hg
112

Rg
64

Cn
65

Gd
96

Tb
97

Cm

Ba
Bariu
m
137.3
2

7

14

Bk

31

Na

Ga
49

In
81

Tl
113

114

Dy
98

Cf

83

Bi
115

Fl
67

Mc
68

Ho
99

Er
100

Es

17

S

Fm

Ne

34

35

Se

Ar
36

Br
53

Te

Kr
54

I

84

85

Po

Xe
86

At

116

117

Lv

Rn
118

Ts

69

70

Tm

Og
71

Yb

101

102

Md

34

Se

Selenium
78.96

Atomic mass
The average
mass of all
the atoms of
the element.

18

Cl

52

Sb

Pb

Nh
66

51

10

F

16

As

Sn
82

9

O

P
33

50

He
8

15

Ge

Argon
39.94

2

N

Si
32

Ar

18

Sodium
22.98

C

Al

20

56

Cs

6

13

Mg
23

11

Atomic number
The number of
protons (positive
particles) in one atom.

B

22

S

Sulfur
32.06

Vana
50.94

Be

21

56

23

12

Na

16

Name
Every element
has a full name.

There are 118 elements in the periodic table—92 are found
in nature, while others have been created in laboratories. They
are arranged in a special order in a table developed by the
Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. The lightest elements
1
H
are found at the top of the grid and those with similar
properties are grouped together in columns.
3
4
11

He
Helium
4

What is the periodic table?

Li

Chemical symbol
A unique one- or
two-letter code
for the element.

Lu
103

No

Lr

Key
Hydrogen
Alkali Metals
Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals
Lanthanides
Actinides
The Boron Group
The Carbon Group
The Nitrogen Group
The Oxygen Group
The Halogen Group
Noble Gases

1751

1772

1807–1808

1823

1896

Axel Fredrik
Cronstedt discovers
nickel while working
as a Swedish
mining expert.

At just 22 years of age,
Scottish chemist Daniel
Rutherford identifies
nitrogen gas.

English chemist Humphry
Davy discovers potassium,
sodium (above), calcium,
strontium, barium,
and magnesium.

Swedish chemist
Jöns Jacob Berzelius
discovers silicon while
experimenting in
his laboratory.

Xenon gas is
discovered by the
British chemists Sir
William Ramsay and
Morris William Travers.

Stuffed crust

Others 1.5%
Magnesium 2.1%
Potassium 2.6%
Sodium 2.8%
Calcium 3.6%

Natural elements are found in
the minerals and rocks that
form Earth’s outer layer—its
crust. Only a few are found
in pure form—most of
Oxygen
them combine with others
46.6%
to form compounds.

Iron 5%

Aluminum
8.1%

In numbers

Silicon
27.7%

100,000,000

The approximate number of
atoms that can fit in a row
measuring 1⁄2 in (1 cm).

9,000

The approximate number of
graphite pencils that could be
made from all the carbon found
in a human body.

6,177°F

(3,414°C) The temperature at
which tungsten melts—the
highest melting point of any
naturally occurring element.

The percentage of the sun made
up of one element—hydrogen.

4

The number of elements that
make up 96 percent of the
human body. Those are oxygen,
carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.

Electron:
Particle with
a negative
charge.

Neutron: Particle
with no charge.

Inside an atom
There are three types of tiny particles in
an atom. Neutrons and protons form
the central nucleus, around which
electrons are arranged in layers
called shells.

I don’t
believe it
A piece of gold the size
of a grain of rice can be
hammered into a thin layer
covering 1,550 sq in
(10,000 sq cm).

Fireworks get their
colors from different
elements. Red sparks come
from lithium and strontium.
A lump of the element
gallium melts just by
clasping it in a hand.
Carbon combines with
other elements to form
more than nine million
different compounds.

Radium paint makes
the numbers glow
in the dark.

1898

1940

2016

French chemists
Marie and Pierre Curie
discover two new
elements—radium
and polonium.

Plutonium is discovered by
Glenn Seaborg and his team
in the US. It is radioactive
and used for nuclear power
and weapons.

Four elements are
officially named, including
Oganesson after one
of the discoverers
Yuri Oganessian (above).

Platinum is highly
ductile, which means
it can be drawn into really
thin wires—as thin as
0.00006 mm.
Only two elements
naturally exist in a
liquid state—mercury
and bromine.

It’s chemical!

91

Proton:
Particle
with a
positive
charge.

18

SCIENCE GEEK

Simply
elementary

This element is highly
flammable and is used
on the strips on the side
of safety match boxes.

Most of the 118 elements that make up the universe
are solids, but 11 are gases at room temperature, and
two are liquids. Here are 18 elements for you to name.
Alongside each picture, look out for the unique chemical
symbol—one or two letters—that scientists across the
world use to identify each element.

When cooled to
−297°F (−183°C) this
colorless gas becomes
a clear, blue liquid.

1 In 1669, a German
alchemist accidentally
discovered this element when
he was boiling a large pot of
his urine in search of the
mythical Philosopher’s Stone.

P
Named after the
Greek word for violet,
this element does not
melt upon heating—it
turns directly into
vapor. It is used
to make antiseptics
and in food dyes.

2

The glass sphere
traps the purpleblack vapor.

I

Life on Earth depends on
this element for survival. All
living things need to breathe
in this gas to convert food
into energy.

4 This shiny
precious metal is a
popular choice for
making jewelry. It also
conducts electricity well
and is used in electronics.

O

Ag

Al
5 This lightweight metal
is used to make all sorts of
objects—from drink cans
to aircraft.

Pure form of
the element
tarnishes when
exposed to air.

6 A small amount of this
element is added to water in
swimming pools to kill off
harmful bacteria.

The glass
sphere stops
the gas from
reacting with air.

Cl

7 When mixed with
other elements, this
metal forms strong
but lightweight
materials—it is used with
other metals to make
cars and aircraft. It also
burns with a bright white
flame and is found in
flares and fireworks.

Mg
ANSWERS: 1. Phosphorus 2. Iodine 3. Oxygen 4. Silver 5. Aluminum 6. Chlorine 7. Magnesium 8. Neon 9. Iron
10. Bismuth 11. Gold 12. Krypton 13. Copper 14. Hydrogen 15. Osmium 16. Sulfur 17. Carbon 18. Mercury

3

19

8 Lighter
than air, this
gas is used
in colorful
lights and signs.

This colorless
gas gives off a
red-orange glow
when electrified.

10 This brittle, heavy
metal has been used in
cosmetics for centuries
to give a shiny glow.

9 Used to make steel, this
element rusts in its pure
form. It is also found inside
our bodies and in some
types of food.

In its pure form, this
metal reacts with air
to produce rainbowcolored crystals.

Ne

Fe

Bi

Au

Kr

Cu

For thousands of years,
this easy-to-work precious
metal has been used to
make jewelry. It was also
forged into coins in the past.
11

A bluewhite glow
is produced
when this
colorless gas
is electrified.

12 One of the rarest gases
on Earth, this element was
discovered in 1898.

The lightest and
most abundant
element in the
universe, this
gas is used as
fuel by stars to
generate heat
and light.

14

Unique reddishorange color

13 Soft and flexible
in its pure form, this
metal conducts
heat and electricity
extremely well. For
this reason it is used
to make electrical
wires and saucepans.

Os

S

15 Shiny and hard wearing,
this rare metal is the densest
of all naturally occurring
elements and has a very high
melting point at 5,491°F
(3,033°C).

16 Also known as “brimstone,”
this pale yellow element
is found near volcanoes.
Many compounds containing
this element give off a foul
rotten-egg smell.

Pure gas glows purple
when electrified

17 This non-metal
exists in many forms: as a
black, crumbly solid called
graphite, as well as one of
the hardest substances on
Earth—diamond.

C

H

Crystals of this element
are often found attached
to volcanic mud.
18 Known as
quicksilver in
the past, this
metal is quite
poisonous, but is
still found in some
thermometers.

Hg

TEST YOURSELF
STARTER

This is the only
metal that is liquid
at room temperature.

Gold
Silver
Copper
Iron
Carbon
Sulfur

CHALLENGER
Aluminum
Oxygen
Neon
Magnesium
Mercury
Hydrogen

GENIUS!
Krypton
Osmium
Chlorine
Phosphorus
Bismuth
Iodine

20

SCIENCE GEEK

The human
body
The human body is a miracle of
nature. It is packed full of parts—
from 206 bones and 21 sq ft
(2 sq m) of skin, to hundreds
of thousands of hairs and billions
of blood cells. The body is
organized into various systems
which all perform vital tasks
to keep you alive.

In numbers

Building a body
Cells: These are the
smallest building
blocks of the human
body and come in lots
of different types.

Tissue: Cells of the
same type group
together to form
a tissue which performs
a particular function.

25,000

The typical number
of breaths you take
every day.

106

The number of bones
found in your hands and
feet—more than half the
number of bones in
the body.

65

Organ: A group
of different tissues
make up an organ,
such as the heart (left).

Body systems

250,000

The number of new
brain cells a developing
baby typically grows
every minute.

The percentage of your
body made of oxygen.

Organs that are linked together are called
systems. Here are four body systems.
Skeletal system
Over 200 bones meet
at joints to form your
body’s strong,
movable frame.

Muscular system
Some 640 muscles make
up 20 per cent of your
weight and enable you
to move your body.

Tendon
connects
muscles to
bones.
Ulna bone
runs from
elbow to wrist.

This muscle
helps your
hand grip.

Veins carry
blood back
to your heart.

Circulatory system
Blood carries oxygen and
nutrients around your
body through tubes
called blood vessels.

Nervous system
A network of nerves runs
throughout your body
carrying electric signals
to and from your brain.

Nerves carry
signals to and
from the brain.
Arteries carry
blood from your
heart to parts of
the body.

21

X-ray: X-rays are high
energy waves that can
pass through soft tissue
in your body to reveal
hard material such as
teeth, joints, and bones.

Twisting frame
of DNA forms
the shape of a
double helix

In around 200 ce, Greek
scientist Galen of Pergamon
described how the heart
pumped blood around the body.
British scientist William
Harvey accurately described
how blood circulated around the
body 1,400 years after Galen.
Czech Jan Evangelista Purkynë
discovered sweat glands in
1833. Your body can make 3
pints (1.51 liters) of sweat a day.

CT scans: Patients lie
in a doughnut-shaped
machine which takes X-ray
images from all directions
to give a detailed 3-D view
of the body.

In the 1900s, Ernest
Starling and William
Bayliss discovered
hormones, chemical
messengers that travel
around the body.

Ultrasound: High-pitched
sounds are bounced
around inside the body
and the echoes are put
together to build up
a picture of internal
organs, or an unborn
baby in the womb.
If the DNA
coiled up in
a cell were
unwound,
it would
stretch for
52⁄5 ft (1.7 m).

Soldier cell
This hungry hunter is a white blood
cell, which seeks out germs and
infected cells and gobbles
them up to prevent
infections.

How do senses work?
Sight: Your brain puts the different
views of your eyes together to
give a 3-D view of the world.

Making me
DNA is a special kind of molecule
inside every cell of our body, and it
holds all the instructions needed for a
human being to grow and develop. Just
0.1 percent of all DNA accounts for all
the differences between each one of us.

I don’t believe it
You shed around 10 billion dead
skin cells from your body every day.

Smell: A small patch of cells
high up in the nostrils of
the nose pick up scent
molecules in the air.
Taste: Specialized
cells in the mouth and
on the tongue detect
different flavors.

Touch: Touch
receptor cells in
your skin tell you
what objects
feel like.

Hearing:
Sound
travels through
the ears as
vibrations.

Anatomy facts

Looking inside

22

SCIENCE GEEK

Know your
bones

1 Good for gripping,
these bones form the
fingers and thumbs. You
have similar ones with the
same name in your feet!

The human skeleton is a fantastic framework of bones
that gives us shape, provides anchoring points for
muscles, and protects our inner organs. Without it,
your body would just crumple on the floor! The
average adult usually has 206 bones, more than half
of them in the hands and feet. Pick the bones of this
sporty skeleton to prove you are on the ball.

4 The long, thin calf
bone runs parallel
to the shinbone and
helps support
the ankle.

6 The shinbone is the
larger of the bones of
the lower leg. Run a
finger down the front
to feel its sharp edge.

2 Each finger and
thumb is connected to
the wrist by one of these
long bones in the hand.

3 Eight small bones
help form the wrist and
give it flexibility so you can
turn it this way and that.

Longer and heavier
than any other bone,
the thighbone extends
from hip to knee.
5

7 This is your
kneecap, a small
thick bone that sits
over the knee joint
to protect it.

8 Seven small, movable
bones form the ankle. The
knobbly parts that you can see
on either side are the ends of
the bones in the lower leg!

Inside the ear
The three smallest bones in the
body are found in the ear. They
pass on sound vibrations from the
eardrum to the inner ear.
10 The tiniest of the ear
bones is shaped like the
ankle supports attached
to a horse’s saddle.

This flat-topped bone
is the middle of the three
linked ear bones.
11

9 Five long bones
give the foot its
arched shape—
point your toes
and take a look!

12 This bone, which looks
like a miniature DIY tool, is
attached to the eardrum.

ANSWERS: 1. Phalanges 2. Metacarpals 3. Carpals 4. Fibula 5. Femur 6. Tibia 7. Patella 8. Tarsals 9. Metatarsals 10. Stirrup 11. Anvil 12. Hammer
13. Radius 14. Skull 15. Ulna 16. Mandible 17. Clavicle 18. Scapula 19. Ribs 20. Humerus 21. Sternum 22. Vertebrae 23. Sacrum 24. Pelvis

23
13 The outer of the two forearm
bones is shorter and smaller,
and connects to the thumb
side of the hand.

14 The head has 22 bones
in all. Eight of them fuse
together to protect the brain
while the rest make up the
frame of the face.

16 The only movable
head bone is the lower
jaw, which allows us to eat,
breathe, and speak.

This bone is twisted here,
but is the inner bone of the
forearm—this player has
rotated his arm at the elbow.
15

17 The only long bone
that lies horizontally, this
one attaches your upper
arm to your body.
18 On each side of your
back, there is a big wingshaped bone, usually
called a shoulder blade.
19 Vital organs, such as
your heart and lungs, are
protected by this cage of
curved bones.

The long bone of the
upper arm connects to
the lower arm bones at
the elbow joint.

20

21 This long, flat bone
runs down the middle
of the chest.

22 The backbone is a long
column made of these
33 small bones stacked
one on top of another.

A bowl of
large, strong
bones forms your
hips and connects
your legs to your
backbone.
24

23 As you grow up, five
bones at the bottom of your
backbone fuse together into
a large, bony triangle.

TEST YOURSELF
STARTER
Skull
Ribs
Pelvis
Vertebrae
Femur
Humerus
Stirrup
Hammer

CHALLENGER
Phalanges
Mandible
Scapula
Sternum
Carpals
Metacarpals
Clavicle
Fibula

GENIUS!
Tarsals
Metatarsals
Ulna
Sacrum
Anvil
Patella
Tibia
Radius

24

SCIENCE GEEK

This open
framework keeps
things light and
actually increases
its strength!

1 This
may look
like delicate
lace—but it’s
strong enough
to help you stand
up straight.

2 A human can
have around 100,000 of
these stalks just sprouting
from their head.

3 Naming this creepy
creature could have you
scratching your head.

4 No, it’s not a
duvet, but the
largest organ of
the body does
snugly cover you
up in several
layers, with a
total thickness
of 1⁄5 in (4 mm).

Hands up!
Do you know
where to find
this unique
body pattern?

5

6 When you eat a meal, the food
goes down tubes lined with about
5 million little “fingers,” each one
around 1⁄32 in (1 mm) long,
which absorb nutrients
into your body.

TEST YOURSELF
STARTER
Eyelash mite
Head louse
Hair
Skin

CHALLENGER
Sweat pore
Tooth enamel
Blood cells
Lip skin

GENIUS!
Fingerprint
Bone tissue
Intestinal lining
Muscle fibers

Under the
microscope
Take a really close-up look at yourself! These jawdropping images, magnified many times through a
powerful microscope, reveal the human body—and
some of the things that live with us—in incredible
detail. Can you recognize which bit of you is which?

7 Watch out,
there’s a creepy
crawly about,
but at 1⁄100 in
(0.4 mm) long,
you won’t see it,
however hard
you look!

Individual
bundles
of tissue

8 You need the
hardest substance
in the body for all
that chomping!

9 Ready to run?
These tightly
packed bundles of
tissues will get you
on the move.

Sweat
droplets
10

Stay cool! Salty water
runs through this tiny
tunnel, making it
part of the body’s
temperature
control system.

11 Allow yourself
a big smile if you
recognize this stretchy
stuff. It is usually red in
color due to the blood vessels
underneath the thin skin.

12 Every day, we
produce hundreds
of billions of these.
Above you can see
two types—the red
ones transport
oxygen around the
body, and the white
ones fight germs.

ANSWERS: 1. Bone tissue 2. Hair 3. Head louse 4. Skin 5. Fingerprint 6. Intestinal lining 7. Eyelash mite 8. Tooth enamel
9. Muscle fibers 10. Sweat pore 11. Lip skin 12. Blood cells

SCIENCE GEEK

26

Math
Math is the study of numbers and how they
relate to each other and the world. We need
math for many things—for science, for
building everything from houses to bridges,
and for powering the computers and
smartphones we use in our
everyday lives.

Perfectly packed
Bees make their
honeycomb out of
hexagons (six-sided
shapes) because they
fit together perfectly.
Petal pattern
Next time you see a flower, count
the number of petals it has—it is
often a Fibonacci number.

I don’t believe it
Although equations existed in ancient times,
the equals sign was only invented in 1557,
by Welsh mathematician Robert Recorde.

Using your fingers
is also a handy way
to communicate
numbers without
using words.

Early number systems
The Babylonians were the first to devise a number
system and symbols, 4,000 years ago. Other ancient
civilizations developed their own digits.

1

2

3

4

5

6

Modern
Hindu-Arabic
Mayan
Ancient Chinese
Ancient Roman
Ancient Egyptian
Babylonian

Early mathematicians

The first people to
count almost certainly
used their hands and
ten fingers to help
them, like children today.
As a result, our modern
counting system, the
decimal system, is based
on tens. If we only had six
fingers and thumbs, we
would probably be using a
system based on six.

Nature’s numbers

Counting
in tens

Mathematical patterns can be found in nature.
One number series, known as the Fibonacci
sequence, turns up in all sorts of places. It
begins: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13 and continues as the
last two numbers are added together to give
the next. Mathematical patterns can also be
found in nature’s shapes.

Pythagoras: An ancient
Greek mathematician, he
is best known for figuring
out the relationship
between the sides and
angles of a triangle.

Archimedes: This Greek
thinker found ways to
calculate the area of circles
and other shapes as well
as using math to create
many inventions.

27
Natural symmetry
If an object has two halves
that look like reflections, we
say it has lateral symmetry.
Most animals have lateral
symmetry, including you!

Measuring Earth
A snowflake has
lots of lines
of symmetry.
You have only
one—down
the middle.

Greek scientist Eratosthenes was one of the
first people to use math to measure Earth’s size,
around 2,200 years ago. He did this using the
angles cast by shadows at two different places
in Egypt. He got the answer 25,000 miles
(40,000 km)—almost exactly right!

Super spiral
This plant is made up
of five spirals—another
Fibonacci number!
Look for spirals
on pine cones and
pineapples, too.

Naming numbers

The distance
around Earth
is called its
circumference.

Infinity

This is the word used by
mathematicians to define
an endless amount. The
symbol for infinity is an eight
on its side: ∞ .

Zero

Number systems had no
number for nothing until
Indian mathematicians
invented it around 650 ce.

Googol

The name of the number 1
followed by 100 zeros. It
was named by a 9-year-old
US schoolboy in 1920.

ic
h.
Math mieandgwith your mind-reading mat
Impress a fr

Hypatia: The first known
female mathematician,
Hypatia lived in Egypt
more than 2,300 years
ago and had her own
school of math.

Al-Khwarizmi: Born
in 780 CE, this Arabic
mathematician described
equations and algebra and
introduced Hindu-Arabic
numbers (1–9) to Europe.

fold it, and
ce of paper,
ie
p
a
n
o
9
r
ok at it.
e numbe
em not to lo
th
1. Write th
g
in
ll
te
d
our frien
give it to y
them to:
tor and ask
la
u
lc
se
ca
a
f their hou
r friend
e number o
2. Give you
th
d
d
a
d
r
n
e
umb
ir age a
eir phone n
• Put in the
digits of th
r
u
fo
st
la
• Add the
er
18
e result by
r. If the answ
er togethe
• Multiply th
sw
l
n
ti
a
n
e
u
th
s
e digit
igits of
• Add the d
ep adding th
ke
,
it
ig
d
e
an on
has more th
e one left.
av
h
ly
they on
f paper and
the piece o
at
k
o
lo
to
always 9.
friend
e answer is
3. Tell your
h
T
t.
n
e
m
amaze
watch their

28

SCIENCE GEEK

Shape up!

There are three
sloping faces.

Everything has a shape. Some things, such as a piece of paper, are
flat, or 2-D (two-dimensional)—they have height and width. Other
objects, like a book, are 3-D (three-dimensional)—they have height,
width, and depth. So while paper is rectangular, a book is cuboid.
Perfect for rolling,
basketballs and
marbles are this shape.

1 Every point on the
surface of this 3-D solid
is the same distance
away from its center.

2 This shape has four
sides, only two of which
are parallel to each other.

3 This 3-D
shape has five
faces, including a
triangle at each end.

The inner angles
of all the corners
of this shape add
up to 360°.
4 The opposite
sides of this shape
are equal and run
parallel with each other.
6 Count up! This
shape has nine sides,
all of equal length.

5 This seven-sided
shape gets its name
from the Greek
word for seven.
7 Each of the six
faces of this shape is
a rectangle, and the
faces opposite
each other are
the same size.

10 The giant building
that is home to the US
Department of Defense
takes this five-sided shape.

The angle at each
corner is 60°.
9 There are four main types of this shape.
The others are isosceles, right-angled, and
scalene. The name of this one comes from
the fact its three sides are the same length.
ANSWERS: 1. Sphere 2. Trapezium 3. Triangular prism 4. Parallelogram 5. Heptagon 6. Nonagon 7. Cuboid 8. Cylinder 9. Equilateral triangle 10. Pentagon
11. Decagon 12. Rhombus 13. Square-based pyramid 14. Kite 15. Hexagonal prism 16. Hexagon 17. Rectangle 18. Square 19. Octagon 20. Cube 21. Cone

Like a drink can, this
shape is round with
two identical and
circular flat ends.
8

29
This shape
has a total of
ten sides.

11

12 This slanting shape
has four sides that are
all the same length.

The ancient
Egyptians constructed
buildings in this shape,
with a four-sided
base and four
triangular sides.

13

The diagonals of
this shape intersect
at 90°.

15 With a six-sided face at
each end, bees use this
3-D shape—because lots of
them fit together perfectly—
to make a honeycomb.

This shape is named after
the traditional flying toy. It has
pairs of equal-length sides that meet.
14

Each angle
on this shape
measures 120°.
The pointed end
of this shape is
called a vertex.

17 This shape
has two pairs
of equal-length
sides and
four corners.

16 A traditional soccer ball
is made up of 20 of these
six-sided panels (along
with 12 pentagons).

19 Resembling a stop
sign, this shape has
eight sides usually
of the same length.

With a circular
base, this shape
narrows to a point
at its other end—
turn it upside down
and you could fill
it with ice cream.
21

18 All four sides of this
2-D shape are the same
length and meet at
corners at 90° angles.

20 Dice are this
shape—six flat faces
and 12 edges make
it good for rolling.

TEST YOURSELF
STARTER
Square
Rectangle
Sphere
Cube
Cylinder
Cone
Equilateral triangle

CHALLENGER
Hexagon
Heptagon
Octagon
Pentagon
Kite
Cuboid
Triangular prism

GENIUS!
Nonagon
Decagon
Rhombus
Parallelogram
Trapezium
Square-based
pyramid
Hexagonal prism

30

SCIENCE GEEK

Transportation
Steaming ahead
Invented over 200 years ago, the steam train would revolutionize travel,
connecting cities and countries like never before. Steam trains burn wood or
coal to heat water, which turns into steam. The steam pushes rods that turn
wheels around, propelling the train and the carriages it pulls along the track.
Chimney
Smoke leaves the
engine through
this outlet.

Boiler
Water is heated in this
large metal container,
turning into steam.

Speed machines
The first cars, planes, ships, and trains were
slow, but modern advances in technology
have really sped things up!

Vestas Sailrocket 2: The world’s
fastest sailing ship travels at
75.22 mph (121.06 km/h).

A4 Mallard: The fastest-ever
steam locomotive reached
126 mph (203 km/h) in 1936.

Driver’s cab
Driver and fireman
(who keeps the
furnace going)
stand here.

01.

Start the engine
and release the brakes. The
engine produces
thrust—a force
that pushes the
plane forward.

6,000,000

The number of parts used to
build a Boeing 747 jet airliner.

1,505 ft

(458.45 m) The length of
the world’s longest ship, the
Seawise Giant supertanker.

36

The number of wheels on the
world’s longest stretch limo,
which is 100 ft (30.5 m) long
and contains a swimming
pool and a double bed.

8 mph

Driving
wheels
These are
driven around
by the steam.

Westland Lynx AH.1:
Reaching 249.09 mph
(400.87 km/h), this is the fastest
helicopter ever made to date.

Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Super
Sport: This supercar has a
top speed of 267.86 mph
(431.07 km/h).

How to fly
a plane

In numbers

Before planes, trains, and cars, long journeys could
take months. People walked, rode, used horse-drawn
carriages, or sailed with the wind. Now we fly around
the world in hours, cross oceans in high-tech liners,
and speed overland in all types of vehicles.

(13 km/h) The top speed of
the Benz Motorwagen, the
first car, made in 1888.

Spirit of Australia: In
1978, this boat set the
water speed record of
317.59 mph (511.11 km/h).

SCMaglev L0 train: In
2015, this experimental train
reached 375 mph (603 km/h).

SR-71 Blackbird: This military
jet plane can fly at high levels,
at speeds of 2,193.1 mph
(3,529.56 km/h).

Thrust SSC: The world land
speed record holder achieved
763 mph (1,227.9 km/h) in 1997.

31

02.

Use the
throttle to increase
the engine’s speed
along the runway.
Air moving under
and over the wings
produces lift.

The Hawk T1A
jet plane is flown
by the British
Royal Air Force’s
Red Arrows
aerobatics team.

03.
Pull back on
the control column (the
steering device) to lift
the nose of the plane
up off the ground.

Weird watercraft
The
Seabreacher,
a two-person
underwater
craft, can leap
out of the water
like a dolphin.

04.

05. Flaps on the
wing and tail can be

As the
plane climbs up into
the air, activate the
controls, which pull
the wheels up into
the plane’s body.

moved using the control
column and rudder bar to
steer the plane in the sky.

This Quadrofoil Q2S
electric boat skims
above the water at
25 mph (40 km/h)
using four wing-like
hydrofoils.

This Tredalo
paddleboat looks
like a giant hamster
wheel. In 2012, it
carried Chris Todd
23 miles (37 km)
across the Irish Sea.

In 1999, a Mi-26 helicopter
carried a 23,000-year-old
woolly mammoth encased in an ice
block across Russia.

Giant carrier
The body of the giant Airbus
Beluga stands 562⁄5 ft (17.2 m)
tall and can carry entire aircraft,
helicopters, and space
station modules.

I don’t believe it
The first aircraft flight, by the Wright
brothers’ Flyer 1 plane in 1903, lifted
off the ground for just 118 ft (36 m).

A train line crosses right
over the plane runway at
New Zealand’s Gisborne Airport.
The Rinspeed sQuba
car can be driven
both on land and
up to 33 ft (10 m)
under water.
Space Shuttle This
craft raced through
space at 17,500 mph
(28,000 km/h).

Get moving!

At only 41⁄2 ft (1.37 m)
long, the Peel P50 is the
smallest drivable car in the world.

SCIENCE GEEK

32
1

This extra-long luxury
car can carry eight or
more passengers in
comfort and style!

On the road
There are more than one billion motor
vehicles on the world’s roads, and most
of these are cars! Powered by electric
motors or internal combustion engines,
they come in all shapes and sizes.

This 1958 model was
the first car made by a
famous Japanese car
company. Its engine is
in the back, with room
for storage in the front.
2

3 Fifteen million of these
affordable US cars—the first to
be mass-produced on a production
line—were built from 1908 to 1927.

4 This sleek, electric car was
built in 2010 and can travel up to
244 miles (393 km) before its
batteries need recharging.

Wooden
spokes

This super
small, two-seater
car is ideal for
driving around
crowded city streets.
5

Just 81⁄5 ft
(2.5 m) long

TEST YOURSELF

Aston Martin DB2/4
Ford GT40
Subaru 360
Benz PatentMotorwagen
Tesla Roadster

To keep the car small,
the engine sits sideways
under the hood.

STARTER

This four-wheel drive
vehicle from the
1940s was sturdy
enough for driving
over rough ground.

CHALLENGER

7

8 Small and zippy, this British
car was first launched in 1959.
Its design was later improved
by a Formula 1 car designer.

GENIUS!

Ford Model T
Rolls Royce Phantom
Bugatti Veyron
Cadillac Eldorado
DeLorean DMC-12

6 Known for its
rocket-shaped tail fins, this
iconic 1950s American
convertible was very heavy,
at more than 2 tons.

No doors—making
it easy for people
to hop in and out
ANSWERS: 1. Stretch limousine 2. Subaru 360 3. Ford Model T 4. Tesla Roadster 5. Smart Car 6. Cadillac Eldorado 7. Willys Jeep 8. Mini Cooper
9. DeLorean DMC-12 10. Aston Martin DB2/4 11. Ford GT40 12. Rolls Royce Phantom 13. Volkswagen Beetle 14. Bugatti Veyron 15. Benz Patent-Motorwagen

Volkswagen Beetle
Mini Cooper
Smart Car
Willys Jeep
Stretch limousine

33
Gull-wing doors
open upward

9

This 1950s British sports car
is known for its speed, and the
manufacturer is James Bond’s
car producer of choice!

10

Famous for featuring in
the 1980s Back To The
Future movie series,
this unusual car
had a stainless
steel body.

In the 1960s, this American car
won the Le Mans 24-hour
endurance race four
times in a row.
11

The car was just
32⁄5 ft (1.03 m) tall.

Figurehead is
called the “Spirit
of Ecstasy”

12

Folding roof
for rainy days

The manufacturer
of this luxury car
with a ghostly name
is known for its
quality production.

Distinctive bugshaped body

13 First built in the 1930s, this
German vehicle is the most
popular car ever, with more than
21.5 million models built.

Steering
handle

At 183⁄4 ft (5.7 m), the
car was very long for
a two-door vehicle.

14 This powerful
supercar has a recordbreaking top speed
of 268 mph (431 km/h).

15 Made in 1886, this
German vehicle was
the first car to be built
for sale. It was steered
using a handle rather
than a steering wheel.

34

SCIENCE GEEK
1

This fast, French, electric
train whisks passengers
along at speeds of up to
199 mph (320 km/h).

2 This American carriage
had its own electric motors
so it could run on rails
without an engine to pull it.

The coaches
provide the look
and feel of
royal rail cars.
3

The world’s fastest train
service reached 268 mph
(431 km/h) on a recordbreaking run in China.

A powerful, sturdy train is just right for
hauling sightseers through the hilly
wilderness of northwestern
Canada and US.
5

4 There are sleeping cabins, two restaurants, and even a spa
on this luxury train that carries passengers around India.

All aboard!
Trains run on rails, or track, and carry millions of people
every day to work, school, or on exciting adventures!
The first trains were powered by steam engines and
hauled small numbers of wagons or small carriages.
Now, modern trains use diesel engines or electric motors
to speed along their routes. Can you name the train?
7 This train travels on the
world’s oldest below-ground
railway system, which opened in
1863. Just please mind the gap!

In Japan, sleek electric trains, such as this one, pull
10 carriages at speeds of up to 199 mph (320 km/h)—
getting passengers where they need to be fast!
6

The nose is streamlined
for travel at high speeds.

8 The first British steam train to race at 100 mph
(160 km/h), this train had traveled 2.08 million miles
(3.35 million km) by 1963 when it retired
from service.

ANSWERS: 1. Train à Grande Vitesse (TGV) 2. Budd Metroliner 3. Shanghai Maglev 4. Palace on Wheels 5. Rocky Mountaineer 6. JRN Shinkansen bullet train 7. London Underground
8. The Flying Scotsman 9. The Fairy Queen 10. H-Bahn Sky-Train 11. GM Aerotrain 12. Osaka monorail 13. A4 Mallard 14. The Ghan 15. Stephenson’s Rocket

35
Each end could be
connected to another
carriage to make
a long train.

Built in 1855, this East Indian Railways
train is the oldest steam locomotive still
running full-steam ahead.
9

10 This
driverless train hangs below
its rail, carrying passengers around
Germany’s Düsseldorf airport.

11 This 1950s American train had a streamlined nose, like a plane,
and carriages that were half the size of usual ones, which made the
train so light that people complained about their rough journey!

Smoke leaves the train’s
boiler through this chimney.

13 Named after a bird, the world’s
fastest steam locomotive reached
126 mph (203 km/h) in 1938.

The horn signals that
the train is approaching.

14 Powerful engines in this
train haul up to 44 passenger
carriages on a 54-hour
journey across Australia.

12 Most trains run on two
rails, but this electric train
runs through a Japanese
city on just one!

A pioneering steam locomotive,
this vehicle ran on the world’s first
intercity train line between
Liverpool and Manchester
in the UK, in 1830.

15

TEST YOURSELF
STARTER
London
Underground
Rocky Mountaineer
Train à Grande
Vitesse (TGV)
The Flying
Scotsman
The Ghan

CHALLENGER
A4 Mallard
Palace on Wheels
JRN Shinkansen
bullet train
H-Bahn Sky-Train
Osaka monorail

GENIUS!
Budd Metroliner
Shanghai Maglev
GM Aerotrain
Stephenson’s
Rocket
The Fairy Queen

36

SCIENCE GEEK

These propellers
tilt upward to help
the plane take
off vertically.

1 The first
powered, heavierthan-air plane was
built and flown
by two brothers
in 1903.

Pilot lay
across
the wing.

2 This unusual military
aircraft can take off and land
like a helicopter and travel
at speeds of up to 310 mph
(500 km/h), like an airplane.

3 With floats underneath its
body instead of wheels, this
sturdy plane can take off and
land on rivers and lakes.

Taking to
the skies

For thousands of years people dreamed
of flying through the air like birds. With
the invention of aircraft in the early
20th century, they finally could! While
some aircraft use spinning rotors or
propeller blades to fly, others use powerful
jet engines to zip through the air.

4 This military helicopter
once battled submarines
but is now used for searchand-rescue missions.

The windshield is made
of armored glass.

5 Known for its top
speed of up to 447 mph
(720 km/h), this iconic
British fighter plane
was flown in
World War II.

Inflatable bags
stored here for
landing on water

37

The plane’s nose
could droop down
when landing to
give the pilots a
better view.

Control cabin
for crew

8 Until its retirement in
2003, this plane was the
world’s fastest airliner, with
a supersonic speed of
1,350 mph (2,180 km/h).

This aircraft
launches the jet
plane (center).

CHALLENGER

7 The world’s
biggest airliner,
this plane can hold
up to 853 passengers.

GENIUS!

6 In the 1930s, this German
airship carried 97 passengers
in style across the Atlantic
Ocean. At 804 ft (245 m) it
was longer than eight and a
half NBA basketball courts.

STARTER

TEST YOURSELF
Bell 47
Concorde
Hindenburg
Wright Flyer

Lockheed SR71
Blackbird
Airbus A380
de Havilland Canada
DHC-3 Otter
Fokker Dr.1

Westland Sea King
Boeing V-22 Osprey
SpaceShipTwo
Supermarine
Spitfire

9 Passengers may
one day fly in space in
future models of this
experimental aircraft.

10 With three sets of wings, this
German fighter plane from World War I
could twist and turn in air battles.

Fish-bowl style
canopy for allaround vision

A special black paint
hid the plane from
enemy radar.

11 With a top speed of 2,193 mph (3,529 km/h),
this spy plane is the fastest jet aircraft ever—
it flew 3,460 miles (5,566 km) from New York, US,
to London, UK, in under 1 hour and 55 minutes.

12 A pioneering helicopter,
this craft was the first to fly
over the Alps mountain
range in Europe in 1950.

ANSWERS: 1. Wright Flyer 2. Boeing V-22 Osprey 3. de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 4. Westland Sea King 5. Supermarine Spitfire
6. Hindenburg 7. Airbus A380 8. Concorde 9. SpaceShipTwo 10. Fokker Dr.1 11. Lockheed SR71 Blackbird 12. Bell 47

38

SCIENCE GEEK

All at sea

1

Early boats were hollowed-out tree-trunk
canoes or simple rafts, used for short, local
journeys. As their design developed, and
ships and boats grew bigger, people
were able to sail further, to trade and
explore new lands. Today, cargo ships
are so huge you need a bicycle to get
Sail was raised
from one end to the other!
for long journeys

Shops, restaurants, and
even swimming pools can
be found in this
floating hotel.

Large gun is used
to fire at targets

2 Ancient Greek ships, such as
this one, were rowed using three
banks of oars on each side.

Ram was
used to
smash into
enemy ships.

4

Fishermen and merchants
use vessels like these to
sail the Indian Ocean
and the Red Sea.

Distinctive
triangular sail

3 Small, rapid military boats
carry cannons or other weapons
for patrolling coastal waters.

The huge, steel, domeshaped tanks on this ship
transport super-cooled fuel in
liquid form across the world.
5

8

6 First used as warships
more than 500 years
ago, these three- or fourmasted ships were later
sailed by explorers.

This large, armored military ship
from World War II is one of the
biggest and most heavily armed
type of ship in large navies.

7 This 935-ft- (285-m-) long ship
carries cargo in thousands of trucksized boxes, which can be then
handled at ports.

ANSWERS: 1. Cruise liner 2. Trireme 3. Gunboat 4. Dhow 5. Gas tanker 6. Galleon 7. Container ship 8. Battleship
9. River steamboat 10. Viking longship 11. Merchant junk 12. Sampan 13. Aircraft carrier 14. Car ferry 15. Icebreaker

39
9 Known for its famous steam whistle,
the engine turns the paddle wheels of this
boat, moving it slowly through the water.

Warriors, traders, and
explorers from Scandinavia
sailed this shallowbodied boat using
woollen cloth sails.

Paddle wheels

Bamboo
canes
stiffen
the sail.

A traditional, flat-bottomed
wooden boat, this vessel is
used in China and some parts
of Southeast Asia.

12

GENIUS!

11 A historic Chinese trading
vessel, this ship sometimes
flew silk sails from its masts.

CHALLENGER

10

Canopy
for shelter
13 This giant military ship acts
as a floating airfield for military
planes and helicopters.

This ship is 1,092-ft(333-m-) long

Ramp for driving
vehicles onto
the craft

15 This vessel cuts
through frozen seas
to keep routes open
for other ships.

Hull is reinforced
to force its way
through the ice

STARTER

TEST YOURSELF
River steamboat
Aircraft carrier
Container ship
Viking longship
Cruise liner

Dhow
Gas tanker
Battleship
Car ferry
Icebreaker

Gunboat
Galleon
Trireme
Merchant junk
Sampan

Transporting motor
vehicles across lakes, and
from one side of a river to
the other, is the main
function of this craft.

14

NATURE
KNOW-IT-ALL

2

Camouflage challenge
The world’s plants come in a variety
of extraordinary colors and patterns.
But there is more than just foliage in this
picture—these leaves are the perfect hiding
place for the imperial moth. Can you see
past its clever camouflage and spot it?

42

NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

How fossils are formed

01. To become a fossil,
a dinosaur body needs
to be quickly buried; for
example, by being covered
by volcanic ash.

02. Once the soft parts
rot away, the hard bones
end up under deeper
layers of sediment.

03. Over millions of years,
minerals fill spaces in the
bones, which turn the
sediment into rock and
bones into fossils.

The long tail of T. rex
was held high to
balance its heavy head.

04. Over millions more
years, wind and rain
wear the rocks away,
exposing the fossil so
it can be found.

How to build a dinosaur

longest specimen o
f Ty
The
ran
easures 39 ft (1
m
x
2
nos
m)
re
aur
lon
us
g.

Dinosaurs

01.

Fossil bones are very
heavy and fragile, so take 3-D
scans of them to create casts and
then make copies of them using
lighter materials.

Prehistoric reptiles called dinosaurs walked
the Earth for 180 million years, long before
humans were around. Scientists are able
to tell how the dinosaurs lived by studying
their remains, preserved in rock as fossils.

Extinction event

Dinosaurs were giant scaly reptiles, some with feathers,
that lived on land. They shared their world with many other
kinds of giant reptiles that were not dinosaurs, for example,
flying reptiles such as the pterosaurs and marine reptiles
such as the plesiosaurs.

Flying reptile

Dinosaur

Marine reptile

Types of fossil

What was a dinosaur?

Many dinosaurs were wiped out
when an asteroid collided
with Earth and destroyed
their habitats.

Body fossil: Hard body
parts, such as skeletons,
are replaced by minerals
that turn them to rock.

Egg fossil: Dino eggs
are usually found as fossil
shell fragments, but are
sometimes intact if buried
and preserved quickly.

In numbers

Dino birds

243 million

The age, in years, of the fossils of
Nyasasaurus, the oldest dinosaur.

700

The number of dinosaur species
discovered and named by 2018.

60 ft

Some dinosaur fossils, such as this
Archaeopteryx specimen (right),
show the impressions of feathers—
these dinosaurs were the first birds. By
comparing body structures, scientists
have figured out that birds evolved from
ancestors that were upright-walking
dinosaurs closely related to T. rex.

(18 m) The height of the tallest
known dinosaur, Sauroposeidon.

2 ft

(60 cm) The length of the biggest
fossilized dinosaur eggs.

Fine sediment reveals the details of
the Archaeopteryx’s feathered wing.

T. rex walked with its
body roughly parallel
to the ground.
Holes for
large nostrils
for sniffing
out prey.

I don’t believe it

02.

03.
Using power tools
and cranes, attach the bone
T. rex had massively
clawed feet, but tiny
two-clawed arms.

copies to a metal frame
to build up a life-size
museum exhibit.

Dinosaur fossils have been
found on every continent,
including Antarctica.
Scientists can often figure
out the height of a dinosaur
from its fossilized footprint.
Roughly, its leg length is four
times the length of its footprint.
Certain fossil sites, such
as some lake beds, have
preserved tissue, ranging from skin
to even the outlines of muscles.
Small stones found in the
stomach cavities of planteating dinosaurs probably helped
them grind up tough leaves.

Mold and cast: Molds are
formed when impressions
of something, such as this
dinosaur skin, turn to stone.
Later, mud fills the mold
to create a cast fossil.

Trace fossil: Preserved
signs of animal life, such
as footprints or poop
(called coprolites), are
known as trace fossils.

Fossil finds

Make computer
models of the bones, and
put them together on
screen to figure out how the
dinosaur might have looked.

The longest and heaviest dinosaur discovered
to date is Argentinosaurus. It was the length of
four fire engines and would have weighed as
much as 17 African elephants!

44

NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Clawed
carnivores

1 This creature had
feathery, clawed wings
that enabled it to fly for
short bursts—but it also had
a toothy dino-like jaw!

Dinosaurs have ruled the Earth for millions of years. These
extraordinary beasts came in all shapes and sizes—the biggest were
the plant-eaters but the most formidable were the meat-eaters.
Some grew as tall as a three-story building, while other, smaller
ones were the ancestors of modern-day birds.
2 The most famous meat-eating
dinosaur had banana-shaped teeth
that delivered a bone-crushing
bite. Its tiny but strong forelimbs
may have helped to grip prey.
3 This dinosaur had powerful,
muscular legs and may have
run as fast as an ostrich, at up
to 37 mph (60 km/h).

Found in
Asia, this large
species had a
bumpy crest along the
middle of its snout.

4

Three strong
toes, each with
a blunt claw

One of the earliest
known dinosaurs was
scarcely bigger than
an adult human at
10 ft (3 m). Its sharp,
angled teeth were
ideal for catching
small prey.
5

7 This is one of
the few meat-eaters
with horns on its head
and a ridge of bony
scales down its back.
6 Although small, this feathered
dinosaur had enormous claws—up to
21⁄2 in (6.5 cm) long—for gripping prey.

8 With lots of tiny
backward-facing teeth
for seizing slippery
fish, this dinosaur
also had front limbs
armed with claws up
to 12 in (30 cm) long.

ANSWERS: 1. Archaeopteryx 2. Tyrannosaurus 3. Gallimimus 4. Monolophosaurus 5. Coelophysis 6. Velociraptor
7. Ceratosaurus 8. Baryonyx 9. Spinosaurus 10. Allosaurus 11. Dilophosaurus 12. Cryolophosaurus

45

TEST YOURSELF

GENIUS!

CHALLENGER

The spiny “sail”
was supported
by bones as long
as 6 ft (1.8 m).

STARTER

9 Measuring 46 ft
(14 m) long, the biggest
meat-eating dinosaur had
a giant “sail” on its back
and crocodile-like jaws
for catching fish.

Spinosaurus
Archaeopteryx
Tyrannosaurus
Velociraptor

Gallimimus
Allosaurus
Coelophysis
Cryolophosaurus

Dilophosaurus
Monolophosaurus
Baryonyx
Ceratosaurus

The double crests
may have been used
in courting displays.

Unusual
skull crests
set this dinosaur
apart from other
meat-eaters.

10 This Jurassic
dinosaur had
more than 70
knife-like teeth,
perfect for
eating big
plant-eating
dinosaurs.

11

Threeclawed
hand

Powerful, threeclawed hand

12 Found in Antarctica, this
top predator is known for its
strange bony crest, which was
probably used for display.

Powerful
legs for
chasing prey

46

NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Plant-eating
giants

1 The extraordinary
neck—that grew up to 39 ft
(12 m) long—of this Chinese
giant made up almost half
of its total length.

The giant plant-eating dinosaurs that walked the Earth
around hundreds of millions of years ago were among
the largest land animals that ever lived. While some
had long necks and tails, others had enormous horns
or thickly armored skin.

The neck was made
up of 19 bones.

May have had spiky,
triangular plates

The hollow crest gave it the
name meaning “helmet lizard.”

The dinosaur may
have reached
291⁄2 ft (9 m)
in length.

Bony spikes
covered the
head and snout.

2 This North
American planteater had a narrow,
sharp beak, which it
used to rip leaves
from plants.

A strong 10-in(25.4-cm-) thick skull—
thicker than any
other dinosaur
skull—may have
been used for headbutting contests.
3

The 3-ft- (1-m-) long crest
was the longest crest of
any dinosaur.

Heavy tail
helped to
balance the
long neck.
4 The unusual,
hollow head crest
may have been used
to attract mates.

47
The tiny brain inside
the skull weighed only
about 4 oz (110 g).

6 Unlike most
dinosaurs, the front limbs
of this plant-eater were longer
than its hind limbs, which allowed
it to browse tall vegetation.

STARTER

5 One of the longest land
animals ever, at 108 ft (33 m), this
dinosaur could gather leaves from
the top of tall trees. Its vast body
contained a huge digestive
system to process the
tough plant food.

TEST YOURSELF

7 Evidence suggests this dinosaur
looked after its young, with babies
staying in the nest for several weeks.

8 The big,
distinctive plates
on this dinosaur’s
back were possibly
used for show.

GENIUS!

CHALLENGER

Flat, bony
plates were
as long as
2 ft (60 cm).

9

Bony neck frill was
a useful defensive
shield but may
also have been
used for display
to attract mates
or deter rivals.

Diplodocus
Ankylosaurus
Triceratops
Stegosaurus

Iguanodon
Brachiosaurus
Corythosaurus
Parasaurolophus

Maiasaura
Mamenchisaurus
Scelidosaurus
Pachycephalosaurus

This dinosaur had a
sharp thumb spike,
possibly used for
defense or for
ripping plants.

Narrow head with
strong beak

10

Thumb
spike

11 The two horns, each
4 ft (1.3 m) long, were
probably used in combat with
rivals of the same species.

Rows of bony knobs
gave this dinosaur
a tough armor
against predators.

Bony
knobs
Bony plates

Club-like lump
of bone

12 This dinosaur was
protected by an armored
back and a tail club that
could be swung at its foe.

ANSWERS: 1. Mamenchisaurus 2. Corythosaurus 3. Pachycephalosaurus 4. Parasaurolophus 5. Diplodocus
6. Brachiosaurus 7. Maiasaura 8. Stegosaurus 9. Iguanodon 10. Scelidosaurus 11. Triceratops 12. Ankylosaurus

48

NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Prehistoric
creatures
After the age of the dinosaurs, some
extraordinary animals walked the Earth.
Some grew into giant beasts, while others
remained as small as rats. Though they may
look similar to some modern-day animals,
the creatures shown here—many with truly
tricky names—are now all extinct.

Curved tusks
may have been
used to scrape
ice and snow.
1 The shaggy
coat of this elephant
cousin was necessary
to survive the bitterly
cold Ice Age. It measured
111⁄10 ft (3.4 m) at
the shoulder.

A thick layer of
fat helped to
keep it warm.

2 A giant mammal, this animal
could gather and digest large
amounts of plant food.

Hair could
grow up to 3 ft
(90 cm) long.

3 Unlike its slow-moving
modern-day relatives, this
giant beast, at 20 ft (6 m),
was too heavy to climb
trees and lived on the
ground—but used
its large claws to
pull branches
within reach.

4 Possibly the largest
meat-eating land mammal
ever, at up to 13 ft (4 m)
long, this predator
is probably
a relative of
modern-day whales.

49
5 One of the earliest known bats,
this insect-eater may have been
able to use echolocation to locate
its prey, just like present-day bats.

TEST YOURSELF

The front horn
was flat rather
than conical.

GENIUS!

CHALLENGER

6 About the size of a white rhinoceros,
which can weigh up to 2.5 tons, this Ice
Age grazer used its large molars to
grind tough vegetation.

STARTER

Skin stretched
over four long
finger bones

Woolly mammoth
Smilodon
Woolly rhinoceros
Giant ground sloth

Uintatherium
Glyptodon
Gastornis

Procoptodon
Icaronycteris
Andrewsarchus
Macrauchenia

The short snout
looked like a trunk.

8 Flightless, like the
modern-day ostrich, this
big bird had a long neck
and large beak,
possibly for
cracking nuts.

7 This strange-looking
mammal roamed the
grasslands of South America,
feeding on leaves and grass.

Hooked
beak

10

9 The long, curved,
canine teeth of this
fearsome predator
were used to kill
large prey.

This mammal had
strange one-toed feet
that looked like a single,
large claw. It could be
10 ft (3 m) tall.

Long,
powerful
legs

The upper
canines
could grow
up to 7 in
(18 cm) long.

Weighing as much as a small
car, this armadillo-like herbivore
had tough armor made up of
hundreds of bony plates.

Like kangaroos,
mothers carried the
baby in a pouch.

ANSWERS: 1. Woolly mammoth 2. Uintatherium 3. Giant ground sloth 4. Andrewsarchus 5. Icaronycteris
6. Woolly rhinoceros 7. Macrauchenia 8. Gastornis 9. Smilodon 10. Procoptodon 11. Glyptodon

11

50

NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Mammals

Small ears keep heat
loss to a minimum.

From the tiniest shrews and bats to the blue
whale, the biggest animal ever, mammals thrive
in many habitats across the planet. Most live
on land, but some
can even hold their
01. In the freezing Arctic
breath long enough
you need a large skeleton—
the bigger the body,
to survive in the
the more heat
deep ocean.
generated.

A polar bear
can sniff a
seal over
181⁄2 miles
(30 km) away.

02.

A thick fur coat and a layer
of fat—up to 4 in (10 cm) thick—traps
body heat, keeping you even warmer!

How to survive
in the Arctic
Like nearly all
mammals, polar
bear cubs are
born live and
feed on their
mother’s milk.

03.
Take care
of your cubs—for up

to two to three years.

A polar bear’s hairs are
actually transparent, but
the way they scatter light
makes them appear white.

04.

As a warm-blooded mammal
you can generate your own body heat,
even in cold climates.

Large, padded, and hairy feet help
the polar bear walk across slippery
ice. Its sharp claws give it extra grip.

51

Flapping
about!

7.7 billion

The world population of the
most abundant large mammal
ever—humans!

75 mph

(120 km/h) Top speed of
the cheetah, the fastest
land mammal.

40

The percentage of
mammal species that
are rodents.

2

The number of hours an
elephant seal can hold its
breath while diving for food.

Hairless wonders!
Many ocean mammals, such as
dolphins, don’t have hairy skin.
Instead they have a thick layer of
fat, called blubber, to keep
their body warm.

I don’t believe it

Types of mammals

The pangolin is the only mammal with
scaly skin. It has huge scales, which form
a protective armor.

Monotremes: The only
egg-laying mammals
are echidnas and the
duck-billed platypus.

Marsupials: These mammals
give birth to tiny young that
are usually protected in a
mother’s pouch.

xtra-str
s an e
ong
a
h
e
hear
f
a
r
t to pump bl
A gi
ood up to its head!

In numbers

Thin wings
help bats
move easily
through
the air.

The giraffe is the tallest
mammal, reaching up
to 20 ft (6 m). It grasps higher
leaves by extending its
tongue an extra 20 in (50 cm).
African elephants
are the heaviest land
mammals, weighing up to
11 tons. Males also have
the tallest shoulder height—
up to 13 ft (4 m).
The Etruscan shrew is
the smallest mammal by
weight, averaging just
0.06 oz (1.8 g). The
bumblebee bat has a
smaller body length, but
weighs more.

Tallest to the smallest

A few kinds of tree-living mammals—
such as squirrels—can glide through
the air, but bats are the only mammals
that can truly fly. Their wings are made
up of skin stretched over very long
finger bones.

Placentals: Most mammals
fall into this group. Mothers
nourish their babies inside
their womb.

52

The long tail
balances the
cat when it
turns at speed.

1 The tail of
this solitary
American cat
is nearly as
long as the
rest of its body!

Know
your cats

2 The fastest animal
on legs would easily
beat the speediest human
sprinter—it can reach speeds
of 70 mph (115 km/h).

Cats are more than teeth and claws—although these sharp
weapons are certainly a big part of their lives. They are
sleek, nimble-footed predators. For the smallest, a mouse
makes a decent meal, but others are big enough to tackle
full-grown cattle.
3 Look closer and you’ll be
able to see the telltale spots
of this African-Asian cat. It’s
best known for its orange
coat, but comes in black, too!

4 This cat moves its
long, tufted ears to signal
other members
of its kind.

The biggest of
all cats, weighing up
to 800 lb (363 kg),
has giant paws
for swiping prey.

5

Distinctive rosettepatterned fur

6 A tropical cat
from the Americas,
this hunter is the
emblem of a
famous luxury car.

53
8 This small cat lives in the
Americas. Each one has a coat with a
unique pattern of stripes and spots.

White cheek with
black stripes

TEST YOURSELF
STARTER

7 Out on the Asian
plains, this shortlegged cat ambushes
prey from behind
large rocks.

9 Found high in the mountains,
this Asian cat can leap effortlessly
from ledge to ledge, using its
super strong legs.

11

Puma
Snow Leopard
Ocelot
Leopard

Marbled cat
Caracal
Pallas’s cat
Eurasian lynx

The distinctive patterned coat
that gives this cat its name
is a good camouflage
when hunting in
the forests of
Southeast Asia.

Found in Africa, the males
of this fierce species have
such loud roars, they can
sometimes be heard
5 miles (8 km) away!

12

ANSWERS: 1. Puma 2. Cheetah 3. Leopard 4. Caracal 5. Tiger 6. Jaguar 7. Pallas’s cat
8. Ocelot 9. Snow Leopard 10. Eurasian lynx 11. Marbled cat 12. Lion

The mane
makes the
male look
bigger than it
really is.

10 At up to 31⁄2 ft (1.1 m)
this cat may be small, but
it has the strength to kill
reindeer and wild boar.

GENIUS!

CHALLENGER

Long, pointed
ears help hearing.

Cheetah
Jaguar
Lion
Tiger

54
1 After
gnawing
through tree bark,
this primate from
Madagascar uses its long
middle finger to scoop out the
insect larvae lurking beneath.

2 This relative of
the lemurs is the
only primate to
produce venom.

Primate
party

3 This monkey from
Borneo has the biggest
nose and is also the best
primate swimmer.

Our closest relatives certainly
make a playful, noisy bunch.
Monkeys and apes, lemurs, and
lorises use brains and brawn to
survive in the wild. Some—like
us—are more at home on the
ground, while others prefer to
be up in the trees.

4 The largest
gibbon at up to
351⁄2 in (90 cm), it is
found across forests
in Southeast Asia.

6 The tail is
more than a
good clue.
This primate
covers it in a
smelly substance,
produced by scent
glands, to waft at a
territorial opponent!

7 This African
ape uses sticks
to probe for
tasty termites.

9. Golden lion tamarin 10. Orangutan 11. Japanese macaque 12. Geoffroy’s spider monkey
13. Verreaux’s sifaka 14. Angolan colobus 15. Mandrill

5 Found in Africa, the
world’s biggest primate
thumps his chest to
intimidate others.

This gibbon’s
throat sac helps
project his call
across 11⁄ 5 miles
(2 km).

55
Prehensile (meaning it can
grip) tail acts like a fifth
limb, supporting weight.

Glossy mane
of fur

One of the best
climbers, this primate,
found in Southeast Asia,
has arms longer than its
legs—its arm span can be
around 71⁄2 ft (2.25 m).
A thick coat helps
it survive the cold
northern winters.

8

A face that is
flushed red signals
this primate’s
good health, not
embarrassment.
It is usually found
in the Amazon
forest treetops.

10

9 This beautiful tiny
monkey, at 13 in
(33 cm), is the color
of a precious metal.
11

This primate
from Japan
is known
to take hot
spring baths
to survive in
cold weather.

12 A grasping tail is enough
to match any climbing
superhero—especially
one that lives in high
rain forest canopies.

Bouncing
on two legs
across the
ground gets this
Madagascan
primate from
tree to tree.
13

Tail helps to balance
while climbing.

14 A white, warm mane is perfect for
this primate’s home—the cool mountain
forests of Central and East Africa.

15 These primates,
with their red and blue
faces (and bottoms!), live in
groups called “troops” in
African rain forests. They
can reach 31⁄2 ft (1.1 m)
in length, making them
the largest monkey.

TEST YOURSELF
STARTER
Ring-tailed lemur
Gorilla
Orangutan
Chimpanzee
Mandrill

CHALLENGER
Aye-aye
Slow loris
Siamang
Proboscis monkey
Golden lion
tamarin

GENIUS!
Verreaux’s sifaka
Angolan colobus
Japanese
macaque
Bald uakari
Geoffroy’s spider
monkey

ANSWERS: 1. Aye-aye 2. Slow loris 3. Proboscis monkey 4. Siamang
5. Gorilla 6. Ring-tailed lemur 7. Chimpanzee 8. Bald uakari

56

NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL
Distinctive
sickle-shaped fin

2

Often mistaken for a killer whale, this
fast swimmer creates a fan-shaped
water spray above the
water—called a
“rooster tail.”

1 In fact a large member of the
dolphin family, this mammal travels in
herds, where there is no one leader.

3 Most cetaceans
live in salt water,
but this one lives
in the rivers of a
vast rain forest.

4 This creature, which likes to swim just below
the water’s surface, is named for a feature that
is missing from its back.

Adult human
diver (6 ft /1.8 m)

5 This thickbodied whale has an
enormous curved mouth—
the largest of any animal—and
a heavy skull that it uses to smash
through solid sea ice.

Aquatic
mammals
Dolphins and whales are cetaceans—airbreathing mammals that live in the water
and have to come to the surface to take
a breath. Their tails move up and down,
not side to side like a fish’s.

The head makes
up one-third of
this animal’s
total weight.
This whale can
grow up to
60 ft (18 m).

Fatty blubber
under the skin
keeps the heat in.

6 Jumping up through
the ocean’s surface, this
cetacean often makes a
big splash, and is known
for its song!

57
7 The
pointy shape at
the front end holds
a clue for this friendly
mammal’s name.

This slow swimmer has sharp,
curved teeth and is the smaller
cousin of one of the
biggest whales.

8

The curved mouth
makes it look like the
animal is always smiling.

The fin in adult
males can be as
long as 6 ft (1.8 m).

13 No other animal has
a single tusk like this
cetacean from
the Arctic.

Amazon river dolphin
Humpback whale
Beluga whale
Long-finned
pilot whale
Indo-Pacific
finless porpoise

Dwarf sperm
whale
Cuvier’s beaked
whale
Dall’s porpoise
Bowhead whale

11 Here is a
pale-skinned cetacean:
it gets its name from the
Russian word “belukha,”
meaning “white.”

The spiral
tusk is used to
attract mates.

14 Named for the
shape of its snout, this
cetacean can dive to a depth
of more than 3⁄5 miles (1 km).

ANSWERS: 1. Long-finned pilot whale 2. Dall’s porpoise 3. Amazon river dolphin 4. Indo-Pacific finless porpoise 5. Bowhead whale 6. Humpback whale
7. Common bottlenose dolphin 8. Dwarf sperm whale 9. Blue whale 10. Sperm whale 11. Beluga whale 12. Orca 13. Narwhal 14. Cuvier’s beaked whale

12 Also known as
the “killer whale,”
this mammal
is actually a
big dolphin.

STARTER

The world’s biggest
animal with teeth, this
cetacean can dive to great
depths to hunt squid.

10

Sperm whale
Orca
Common bottlenose
dolphin
Narwhal
Blue whale

CHALLENGER

9 Biggest heart,
biggest tongue, biggest
animal ever! It can be up to
105 ft (32 m) in length.

GENIUS!

TEST YOURSELF

58

NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Invertebrates
Animals without a backbone are known as
invertebrates. They make up more than 80 percent
of all types of animal and are incredibly varied.
Invertebrates include some with hard outer cases,
such as insects and shellfish, and soft-bodied
animals such as jellyfish and worms.

01.

As a giant centipede, you have
more than 20 pairs of jointed legs on your
segmented body. As some pairs step
forward, the rest will follow.

How to move like a centipede

02. Let your
body wriggle
from side to side.
This will help you
pick up speed.

Antennae
Long, jointed
antennae, or
“feelers,” sense
surroundings.

Leg muscles
Each leg has muscles
to bend or straighten
the joints.

03.
Use the claws at the ends of
your legs to help you run, grip prey,
and even climb.

Oc
to

I don’t believe it
When a pistol shrimp snaps its claws, the sound
is so loud that it sends out shock waves strong
enough to kill the shrimp’s prey.

grasp prey.
ers
k
c
su
s
pu

Types of invertebrates

Cnidarians: This is
a group of simple
invertebrates with
tentacles, such as
jellyfish and corals.

Worms: There are
different kinds of
long-bodied worms.
Some can burrow
and others swim.

Molluscs: This group
includes slugs and
snails. Molluscs are
soft and fleshy and
often have a shell.

Arthropods: These
include spiders and
relatives. They have
an outer skeleton
and jointed legs.

Echinoderms: These
include sea urchins
and starfish, which
are shaped like disks
or stars.

In numbers

12.5 trillion

Estimated size of the biggest
insect swarm: a plague of
Rocky Mountain locusts.

400,000

Number of known beetle
species, the largest group
of insects. Very many more
await discovery.

14⁄5 oz

(50 g) Weight of a goliath
beetle, one of the heaviest
flying insects—that’s more
than a golf ball.

(0.139 mm) Length of the
smallest known insect, a
fairy fly.

An invertebrate holds the animal
record for high-altitude living. A type
of jumping spider lives at heights of
up to 22,000 ft (6,700 m) on the
slopes of Mount Everest. This little
predator feeds on tiny insects that
get blown high onto the mountain
by the gales of the Himalayas.

Biggest and smallest

40 ft
(12 m)
6 ft (1.8 m)
Colossal squid

Human

The giant of all invertebrates is
the colossal squid that lives in
the deep ocean. It snags fish
with its hooked tentacles.

Microscopic animals
called tardigrades are
great survivors. They can
dry out into husks that
have lost 95 percent of
their body water and still
recover, and they have
survived being sent into
space without any oxygen.

0.003 in
(0.07 mm)

0.002 in
(0.05 mm)
Rotifer

A jellyfish has no
brain. Its simple
nervous system carries
electrical messages for
moving but cannot control
complex behavior.

Width of
human hair

Some invertebrates, such as rotifers,
are so tiny you need a microscope to
see them. Thousands could swim in
one drop of water.

The deep-sea Pompeii
worm that lives in
tubes near volcanic vents
can bear temperatures of
176°F (80°C).

Smart octopus
Although most invertebrates
have tiny brains, a few, such
as octopuses, are quite
intelligent. A super-smart
octopus is able to extract
lobsters from lobster traps,
or even make its escape
from public aquariums.

Living fossils
Horseshoe crabs (more related
to spiders than shellfish) have
been around for more than
400 million years.

Invertebrate facts

0.0055 in

Extreme living

60

NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL
This tropical American
butterfly has see-through
wings, so it’s difficult to spot
when perched on a leaf.

3 It’s a busy life for this
insect, collecting nectar
that will be turned
into honey back
at the hive.

1

2 Sunlight
bouncing off this Central
American beetle makes it shine
like a precious metal and helps
disguise it in the rain forest.

Colored scales
at the edges are
the only way to
spot this insect.

Insects
everywhere

Hair traps pollen

Despite its name, this
jewel-like insect does not
sting, but it does lay its eggs
in other insects’ nests.
4

The pattern on
the wings helps
it camouflage
in forests.

There are more species of insects on Earth than
any other living animal, so it’s no wonder they
show up in practically every place you look.
Insects have six legs for crawling, and most of
them also have wings for flying—and that’s clearly
a winning combination in their fight for survival.
With its strong legs,
this insect can jump
271⁄2 in (70 cm) into the
air—giving it its name.

5

This flying insect lives
for only 1–2 days, and
starts its life as a nymph
that lives underwater
in ponds and lakes.

6

7 One of the biggest
and most colorful
of its kind, this Asian
insect has a wingspan
of 10 in (25 cm).

Wings are
covered with
tiny scales.

8

Billions of these insects, which
can be 3 in (7.5 cm) long, form
hungry swarms that can quickly
strip crops of all their leaves.

Three
tails

Ridged wings
are longer than
the body.
Pattern on the
wings reflects light
9

The long “snout”
on this insect’s head
was once thought to
glow in the dark—which
gave it its name.

Broad
fore legs

10 A network of veins in the wings
of this insect makes it look like a
type of delicate fabric.

Snout has a pair of
tiny jaws at the tip.

11 This is the perfect
disguise for an insect
that lives among
the foliage of
a rain forest.

Long antennae

12

Only one set
of wings

This notorious pest can
reach 13⁄4 in (4.4 cm) in size,
and can eat almost anything—
from food scraps to soap!
13

16 This spotted beetle likes
to munch on infestations of
greenflies—making it a good
friend of gardeners.

Only the males of this insect
species have impressive
jaws that look like
antlers, which
are used for
wrestling with
rival males.

14 The striped
warning pattern of
this insect is a bluff—it
does not sting and is a
harmless nectar feeder.

15 A distinctive long
snout is used by this
beetle to bore holes
into hazelnuts for
laying eggs.

Wings are hidden
under the wing case.
Hooked claws

That’s not a
stinger—it’s a long
egg-laying tube
that can drill
into timber.

TEST YOURSELF

Spines

Antennae detect wood-living
larvae into which eggs are laid.
19

This architect of the insect
world builds towering mounds
where millions of insects live
in enormous colonies.
Long, transparent
wings with veins

20 Those fiercelooking spiny fore legs
are used to grab prey
with lightning speed.

21 These insects spend most
of their lives underground
as larvae, emerging
from the ground only
once every 13 or 17
years as adults.

CHALLENGER

Big eyes and
superb controlled
flight help this
hunter catch other
insects in mid-air.

18

GENIUS!

Males have
a bright blue
abdomen with
black markings.

STARTER

17

Emperor dragonfly
Desert locust
Praying mantis
American cockroach
Honeybee
Ladybug
Stag beetle

Mayfly
African termite
Common leaf insect
Green lacewing
Hover fly
Atlas moth
Froghopper

Golden chafer
Nut weevil
Glasswing butterfly
Sabre wasp
Ruby-tailed wasp
Lantern bug
Periodical cicada

ANSWERS: 1. Glasswing butterfly 2. Golden chafer 3. Honeybee 4. Ruby-tailed wasp 5. Froghopper 6. Mayfly 7. Atlas moth 8. Desert locust 9. Lantern bug 10. Green lacewing 11. Common leaf insect
12. Stag beetle 13. American cockroach 14. Hover fly 15. Nut weevil 16. Ladybug 17. Sabre wasp 18. Emperor dragonfly 19. African termite 20. Praying mantis 21. Periodical cicada

62

NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Under
the sea

1

Deep red and covered in
green spots, this creature
waves its tentacles in the
water to trap tiny prey.

Peer into a shallow rock pool and you will see the
strangest creatures. Go deeper and you will find a wider
range of animals than on land. The ones on these pages
are all invertebrates, meaning they lack a backbone,
and they come in extraordinary shapes and colors.

The animal’s muscle
fibers squeeze its body
to move through water.

The paper-thin body of this
colorful animal ripples as it
swims along.

2

3 The bells of this jellyfish are usually
around 1 ft (30 cm) in diameter.
Its sting is painful but
not dangerous—much
like a well-known
stinging plant!

4 Its name might make this
creature sound edible, but it’s a
relative of starfishes and is actually
poisonous to eat—a good defense!

Prey is paralyzed
by venom.
Big eyes help see
clearly while moving
at high speeds.

6 A pale shell is
a good disguise
for scurrying on
a sandy beach.

5 This animal lives
attached to the rocks,
and is a bivalve, which
means it has two shell
parts hinged together.

Fibrous threads
attach to rocks.

ANSWERS: 1. Strawberry anemone 2. Polyclad flatworm 3. Pacific sea nettle 4. Sea apple 5. Common mussel 6. Horned ghost crab 7. Blue-ringed octopus 8. Christmas tree tube worm
9. Chambered nautilus 10. Purple sea pen 11. Spanish shawl nudibranch 12. Lined chiton 13. Mushroom coral 14. Red general starfish 15. Peacock mantis shrimp

63
The rings flash vividly
when the animal
feels threatened.

One of the
deadliest animals
on Earth, the color
pattern is a warning
that its bite is deadly
venomous.
7

8 The feathery
tentacles might
look festive—but
they are used for
catching food.

The whorls of tentacles
also help take in oxygen.

STARTER

TEST YOURSELF

Unlike its relatives,
the squid and octopus,
this swimming
creature lives in
a mobile shell.

CHALLENGER

9

This is really
a branching
colony of tiny
animals that are like
miniature anemones.
10

11 This sea slug
is the enemy of
anemones—not only
does it eat them, but
it steals their stingers
and stores them
on its back!

The flexible shell
of this snail relative
can help it roll up
for protection.

12

The shell
is made of
8 plates.

13 Although
it might look
rather funguslike, this creature
moves and slides
across soft sand.

15 This crustacean has two
swinging clubs that are used
to smash prey to pieces.

Tube feet help
the animal
move and grip.

Prey is swallowed
through a central mouth
on the underside.

Clubs

GENIUS!

It has up to 90
sticky tentacles.

Common mussel
Red general starfish
Blue-ringed
octopus
Horned ghost crab
Strawberry anemone

Mushroom coral
Chambered nautilus
Polyclad flatworm
Pacific sea nettle
Peacock mantis
shrimp

Lined chiton
Christmas tree
tube worm
Purple sea pen
Sea apple
Spanish shawl
nudibranch

14 The shape is a
giveaway! Each of this
animal’s arms can grow
back after injury.

64
1 Watch out! This arachnid has
a dangerous, venomous stinger
and blends well into its desert
habitat with its sand-colored skin.

Stinger

2 Often found weaving
tangled webs in the corner
of the ceilings, this spider
traps its prey in silk threads.

Pincers hold
captured prey.

4

Long, thin tail

Long,
spindly
legs

Distinctive yellow
and black bands

Looking like a stinging
insect, this spider spins
a web with a zigzag
pattern to trap prey.

3 Although this arachnid has
no stinger, it can defend itself by
spraying a vinegary acid from
the base of its tail.

Dense
red fur

Long, thin front
legs help to feel
for prey at night.

Arachnids
assemble

5 This colorful, softskinned arachnid from
Asia prowls slowly among
leaf-litter, preying on
smaller insects.

Feast your eyes on these eight-legged mini-beasts!
Arachnids are a type of invertebrate that includes
spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites. While some of these
have a venomous bite, others have a stinger in their
tail, but they all use clever ways to catch their prey.

Front legs are raised
to reveal fangs and
warn off enemies.

6 This big, hairy
arachnid from
North America
has a body up to
4 in (10 cm) long.

65
8 This spider takes
the plunge to catch
food—it breathes
underwater by
carrying its own air
supply in a bubble.

Two extralarge eyes
7 A web held out in
the legs of this tropical
arachnid is used like a net
to scoop up passing prey.

Bubble of
air around
the body

Venom gland

This creature is
perfectly disguised
on the dark floor of
an African rain forest.

9 One of the biggest
of its kind, at up to
8 in (20 cm) long, this
arachnid is armed
with large, armored
pincers that are used
to crush and tear
prey, such as lizards
and mice.

Strong muscles in
the pincers give a
powerful grip.

Antennae-like
front legs

10 This arachnid likes to wander
into homes. It builds tunnel-like
webs in which it drags its
prey to feast.

Striped legs and
mottled body

STARTER

Pincers often contain
poison glands.

With pincers
and a flat body, this arachnid
might look like a scorpion, but
lacks the tail and stinger of one.
12

GENIUS!

14 Capable of changing its
color from white to yellow,
this arachnid hides among
flowers of matching color
to grab unsuspecting
visiting insects.

Giant,
venomous
fangs

13 When this big-eyed arachnid from
North America springs into action, it
rarely misses its target—it can jump six
times the length of its body.

CHALLENGER

Lacking any venom, this
tropical arachnid relies on long,
spiny front limbs to snag prey.
11

TEST YOURSELF

Eight forward-facing
eyes help to judge
distance accurately.

Mexican red-knee
tarantula
House spider
Yellow scorpion
Daddy long-legs
spider
Sydney funnel-web
spider

Wasp spider
Goldenrod crab
spider
Diving bell spider
Emperor scorpion
Regal jumping spider

Whip scorpion
Whip spider
Broad-headed
pseudoscorpion
Ogre-faced spider
Common velvet mite

15 One of the most dangerous arachnids—with
venom potent enough to kill a human—catches prey
by laying trip-wires in front of its tube-like web.

ANSWERS: 1. Yellow scorpion 2. Daddy long-legs spider 3. Whip scorpion 4. Wasp spider 5. Common velvet mite 6. Mexican red-knee tarantula 7. Ogre-faced spider 8. Diving bell spider
9. Emperor scorpion 10. House spider 11. Whip spider 12. Broad-headed pseudoscorpion 13. Regal jumping spider 14. Goldenrod crab spider 15. Sydney funnel-web spider

NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL

Birds
There are more than 10,000
different kinds of birds living in
habitats that vary from wetlands,
moorlands, coasts, and forests to
city streets. Being a bird means
leading a busy life. Flying uses
up a lot of energy, so birds need
plenty of fuel in the form of food.

The kingfsh
er clo
ses
eyelids a
tra
s it h
ns
its t
p
he
wa are
te
nt
r.

66

What is a bird?
Plumage:
All birds have
body feathers
and, usually,
bare legs
and feet.

Vertebrate: A bird is
a vertebrate, but has
more neck bones than
most other animals
Wings: The
with backbones.
forelimbs of
birds are in the
form of wings,
but not all birds
can fly.

I don’t believe it
In 1956, a five-year-old albatross called
Wisdom was ringed so that her movements could
be tracked. She was still alive in 2017, aged 66.

The smallest bird
The tiniest bird of all is the bee
hummingbird, found only
on the Caribbean island of
Cuba. Males, which are smaller
than females, measure on
average just 2 in (5.5 cm) long
and weigh 7⁄100 oz (1.9 g).

How to hunt like a kingfisher

Lays eggs: Birds’
eggs provide
protection
and food for
growing chicks.

Quill
Every feather
has a hard
central quill
or shaft.

Feathers are made from keratin,
a material also found in animal
hair, nails, and reptile scales. Some
feathers are fluffy for warmth, but
most of the outer ones are flat and
stiffened to improve streamlining
and aid flight.

The oilbird from South
America sleeps in caves
during the day and flies at night,
using batlike echolocation.
Birds’ beaks contain a
mineral that is sensitive to
Earth’s magnetic fields. This helps
them navigate on migration.

Flying facts

Feathers

The longest-known nonstop
bird flight—7,146 miles
(11,500 km)—was tracked
during the migration of
a wading bird called a
bar-tailed godwit.

Vane
The flat surface
(vane) is made up
of side branches
(barbs), held
together by
tiny hooks.

01.

The wandering
albatross has the
longest wingspan
of any bird—
12 ft (3.65 m).

Find a perch
above the water and
watch for fish. Get
ready to dive in a
split second.

02.

When a fish
catches your eye, plunge
into the water, pulling
back your wings to
streamline your body.

up to the surface, and
return to the perch to
swallow your meal.

Strange bills

03.
Grab the
fish in your bill, float

Using tools
A few brainy birds use tools to
find food. The New Caledonian
crow can even bend twigs into
hooks to get insect grubs
from wood.

Shoebill: An enormous bill
with a cutting edge helps
this large wading bird of
the African swamps catch
and kill big fish by slicing
off their heads.

Spoonbill: Sweeping its
bill from side to side in
the water, this bird feels
for insects and shrimp
with the touch-sensitive
“spoon” at the tip.

Hummingbird: This tiny
South American nectarfeeder has a long, thin bill
for probing flowers and
a long, grooved tongue to
collect the liquid inside.

68
2

NATURE KNOW-IT-ALL
Showing off its spectacular
plumage by dancing in
the trees is how this
bird attracts a mate.

4 Known for its deep red color,
this water bird uses its long beak
to probe for insects in the mud.
3 In Central America