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Statistics for people who (think they) hate statistics: Using Microsoft Excel 2016.
Statistics for people who (think they) hate statistics: Using Microsoft Excel 2016.
Neil J. SalkindCategories:
Anno:
2017
Edizione:
4
Editore:
SAGE Publications
Lingua:
english
Pagine:
546
ISBN 13:
9781483374086
File:
PDF, 123.48 MB
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12 June 2019 (04:16)
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Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics_Using Microsoft Excel 2016, 4th2017_(Neil J. Salkind).pdf
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pages: 546 (Scanned version)
15 June 2019 (10:13)
rabia
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01 December 2019 (19:39)
Geric
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Statistics for People Who (rh,~~k rJteyJ H,a te Statistics o Neil J. Salkind 4th Edition ® ___ ____ �=:=======__ ...., _...,_  ....____.........._____ _ ._. __,., • eQuizzes and eFlashcards help you check your understanding. • EXCLUSIVE! Access fulltext SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter. other title by uential auth1 l. Salkindl 100 Questions ' ' At,,_,.� Research PRAl5f, FOR 5TATl5TIC5 FOR pr,op~r, wuo (TUINI< TUf,VJ UATt STATISTICS Thank you so much for a wonderful textbook; it's written with such an awareness of the reader (and an awareness that some people have selflimiting beliefs about their abilities with statistics!). Dr. Jeremy Nguyen Swinburne Business School Swinburne University of Technology Hello Dr. Salkind! Just wanted to thank you for putting together a great resource in your Statistics for People ... I use it to teach my grad course in Quantitative Research Methods in Anthropology here at Northern Arizona University. We fondly refer to your book as "Haters." Britton L. Shepardson, PhD Lecturer & Assistant Chair Department of Anthropology Northern Arizona University Dr. Salkind, thank you for writing a textbook that was very entertaining to read! Not only did I learn something, but I was not bored. In Chapter 13 (page 218), I was drawn in by the prospect of getting a new macaroni and cheese recipe hence why I am writing to you. I am also enclosing my family's recipe for buffalo chicken mac & cheese (there is a lot of cheese and butter, but I am from Wisconsin). If you have time to try it, I'd love to hear what you think. I would also appreciate it if you could send me your recipe. Thank you for a great text (and a new recipe)!  Andrea Green I am enrolled at Capella online trying to get my master's in Educational Psychology. I only would like to share with you that your book is amazingreally easy to unders tandand I especially like the li; ttle fun you add to it. It is delightful to read because that fun takes the anxiety away. Now I understand the title! Nanna Vargas Instructor & Data Administrator Houston Center for Literacy Just a quick note to say "Thank You! I had my engineering analysis class last fall at Eastern Kentucky University and we used your book, Statistics for People Who (Thinh They) Hate Statistics. I learned so much and really appreciate it. I am currently doing some research and was reading another master's thesis on my subject and they were discussing "ttesting." I was so excited that I was able to grab my markedup and highlighted book to review. I just had to write and thank you for producing a great book that I am able to use beyond a classroom. Again, thank you for making statistics a practical tool for my everyday life! Mark A. Campbell, CFPS, SET J 'I As a statistics professional with a creative writing English BA, let me be just one of many to say thank you for your book. You have helped me find what I have been looking for my entire career, a passion. I thoroughly enjoyed your writing style, your explanation of theory and practical usage, the incorporation of Excel, chapter quizzes, andmost of allthe examples. I sincerely hope to find more of your work for my continued learning. Thank you again for your inspiration. You have made a running joke with my staff at the office more fun than ever: "I math do well!"  Sam Johnson I am taking statistics at the graduate level for a master's programlate in life I might addand I hate statistics to the depth, breadth, and volume of all the oceans of all the earth combined. I do, however, love statisticians. They ... you are the resource for all things sadistically statistical?! Even more, I love brownies. And the recipe is fabulous. Thanks. This text has helped me more than any other, and I would be remiss if I did not give credit to my current instructor. Were it not for his style and sense of humor, stats would be lost on me. I think I will make brownies for class! (Mayonnaise?! Really, whoda thunk!)  Bruce Bailey Lead C.D. Technician Hazelden Fellowship Club Intermediate My name is Jessica Maes and I am currently working on attaining a master's degree in Curriculum and Instruction from New Mexico Highlands University. ln the statistics class I am taking at this time, our required text is your book. I just wanted to take this time to tell you that your book has changed my perception and attitude toward statistics. I find that it is very well written, the language is completely user friendly, and the progression of new concepts within each chapter is fantastic. Although my class is only on Chapter 5 at this point, I have found my interest in the concepts and order in which you introduce them becoming greater. I THANK you with very much appreciation as I WAS someone who dreaded taking statistics and thought I hated it! Very Grateful, Jessica Maes I am a fulltime registered nurse of 19 years and have recently begun my journey of obtaining my Bachelor of Science in Nursing. Tomorrow is my first statistics class. I have just read your "note to student" and wanted to write to you and inform you that you have described my symptoms to a T. My classmates and I are extremely anxious about our course and what we are in for over the next three months. After reading these two pages, I wanted to tell you that you have alleviated some of my anxiety and allowed me to stop fretting about the unknown and begin to read on. Thank you for that. I am working a night shift tonight. Hopefully I will find time to read my required chapters with less anxiety and actually absorb some of the material I am reading. Thank you again. I will try and look forward to learning from your book, my excellent instructor, and my classmates. Sincerely, Lori Vajda, RN I It is easily the best book of its kind that I have come across. I enthusiastically recommend it for anyone interested in the subjectand even (and especially) for those who aren't! Professor Russ ShaferLandau University of Wisconsin I just wanted to send a little "thank you" your way for writing an extremely userfriendly book, Statistics for People Who (Thin1z They) Hate Statistics. I'm a psychology major doing an independent study over break (at Alverno College, a statistics course is a prerequisite for a class I'm taking this spring, Experimental Psychology). In other words, I'm pretty much learning this on my own (with a little guidance from my mentor), so I appreciate having a book that presents the material in a simple, sometimes humorous manner. Sincerely, Jenny Saucerrnan Dr. Salkind's book is a "must read" for students who think they don't "do statistics." He writes clearly about statistical topics and has a unique way of making them fun. The book contains useful explanations, examples that help students understand the underlying concepts, and graphics that clarify the material without overwhelming the novice. Professor Nancy Leffert Fielding Graduate Institute I just wanted to let you know how much I enjoyed your book Statistics for People Wlio (Thinlz They) Hate Statistics and how easily it jogged my faint memories of statistics (my work had been primarily in the clinical world before I returned to the academic world) and of SPSS. 1 am sure you hear from students all the time, but I wanted to let you know that even other academics find your book useful. Professor John T. Wu, EdD Point Loma Nazarene University Great presentations for a subject that tends to be esotericthe text makes statistics alive and vibrant. I told my wife that the book reads like a novelI can hardly put it down. Professor Kenrick C. Bourne Loma Linda University I love the clear description of the twotailed tesl. Pepper The author's dog My students really appreciate your approach, which is making my job a lot easier. Professor Tony Hickey Western Carolina University Hello! First and foremost, I think your book is wonderful, and it is helping me tremendously in understanding concepts that, for instance, our chosen class textbook cannot. I am supplementing my class text with your book. Thanks so much!  Melissa W Administrator I love your book Statistics for People Who (Thinll They) Hate Statistics. I thought I did hate statistics; to be honest, I feared the concepts of stats, numbers, math, etc.. . . Ewwww! But thanks to your book, I understand it now (I get it). Your book gives me hope. I'm working on my PhD in nursing here in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and I'm confident that I will ace my 100 percent online graduate stats class. This text is my professor and guidance during these late nights of studying (my best time to study). This book is loaded with helpful tips and clarity, and it's fun. I love the part about the 100 airline pilots and the flying proficiency test. The lowest value was 60"don't fly with this guy." Love it funny. Thanks, Dr. Salkind.  Del Mars I studied statistics 20 years ago and recently moved from administration into health research. Your book has been a big help in reviewing basic statistics. I love the book! Please write another. Susan Lepre , PhD Bergen County Department of Health Services Hello! I bought your book at Barnes and Noble among 30 books that I browsed for my statistics class. I was intrigued by the title ... and it was so simple to understand with the stepladder format. I followed those steps, and boy, they really work! Thanks a lot! Anne Marie Puentespina, RN, BSN Legal Nurse Consultant For my beginning students, this is the book that fits their needs. It is clear, concise, and not intimidating. It's even fun. I strongly recommend it. Professor Lew Marglois School of Public Health, University of North Carolina I have loved stausucs ever since my second undergraduate course. Your book Statistics for People Wlio (Tl1i11ll They) Hate Statistics has cleared up confusion and partial understandings that I have had for years. ll is a must for anyone beginning or continuing their journey in this science. I love it and will use it for all of the foreseeable future. Ronald A. Straube Performance Improvement Coordinator, Mission Texas Regional Medical Center Statistics for People Who {Think They) Hate Statistics Using Microsoft Excel 2016 o 4th Edition Outside of a clog, a booll is mans best friend. Inside of a clog, its too darh lo read. Groucho Marx Fot Doug and Nancy. Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics Using Microsoft Excel 2016 o 4th Edition Neil J. Salkind f ($)SAGE Los Angeles I London I New Deihl Singapore IWashington DC I Mel!JOume ($)SAG~ FOR WOAMATION: SAGE Pub.Jest ons, Inc. 24S5 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, Csfifomia 91320 Email: orderOsagepub.com SAGE Publications Ud. 1 Oliver's Vaid 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom SAGE PubHcatJons lndJa Pvt. Ltd. B 1/11 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area copyright © 2017 by SAGE Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. All trademarks depicted within this book, including trademarks appearing as part of a screenshot, figure, or other image are included solely for the purpose of illustration and are the property of their respective holders. The use of the trademarks in no way indicates any relationship with, or endorsement by, the holders of said trademarks. SPSS is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044 India Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data SAGE Publications AsiaPacific Pte. Ltd. Names: Salkind, Neil 3 Church Street #1004 Samsung Hub Singapore 049483 J., author. Title: Statistics for people who (think they) hate statistics: Using Microsoft Excel 2016 / Neil J. Salkind, University of Kansas. Description: 4 edition. I Los Angeles: SAGE, [20171 I Includes index. Identifiers: LCCN 2015040053 I ISBN 9781483374086 (pbk.: alk. paper) Subjects: LCSH: Statistics. I Microsoft Excel Computer file) Classification: LCC HA29 .S23652 2017 I DOC 519.5dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc. gov/2015040053 Acquisitions Editor: Helen Salmon This book is printed on acidfree paper. Editorial Assistant. Yvonne McDuflee elearn ng Editor: Katie Ancheta Product on Editor. Libby Larson Copy Editor: Paula Fleming Typesetter: C&M Dig tars (P) Ltd. Proofreader: Scott Oney Indexer: Will Ragsdale Cover Designer: Candice Harman Marketing Manager: Susannah Goldes 16 17 18 19 20 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 A Note to the Student: Why I Wrote This Book xxii And a (Little) Note to the lnstmctor xxiv Acknowledgments XXV And Now, About the Fourth Edition ... xxvi About the Author xxix PART I Yippee! I'm in Statistics 1 1. Statistics or Sadistics? It's Up to You 5 Little Chapter la. All You Need to Know About Formulas and Functions 21 Little Chapter lb. All You Need to Know About Using the Amazing Analysis Tools 40 Lillie Chapter le. For Mac Lovers Who Are Still Using Version 2011: Rejoice!! And, for Mac lovers Who Are New to Version 2016, Rejoice Morel!! PART II Ligma Freud and Descriptive Statistics 2. Computing and Understanding Averages: Means to an End 51 3. Vive la Difference: Understanding Variability 79 4. A Picture Really ls Worth a Thousand Words 96 . Ice Cream and Crime: Computing Correlation Coefficients 127 6. Just the Truth: An !nt~~duction to. . Understanding Rehabthty and Vahdtty 154 5 PART Ill Taking Chances for fun and Profit 7. Hypotheticals and You: Testing Your Questions 177 179 8. Are Your Curves Normal? Probability and 194 Why It Counts PART IV Significantly Different: Using Inferential Statistics 219 9. Significantly Significant: What It Means for You and Me 221 10. Only the Lonely: The OneSample ZTest 240 ll. t(ea) for Two: Tests Between the Means or Different Groups 251 12. t(ea) for Two (Again): Tests Between the Means of Related Groups 270 13. Two Groups Too Many? Try Analysis of Variance 285 14. Two Too Many Factors: Factorial Analysis of VarianceA Brief Introduction 303 15. Cousins or Just Good Friends? Testing Relationships Using the Correlation Coefficient 318 16. Predicting Who'll Win the Super Bowl: Using Linear Regression 328 17. What to Do When You're Not Normal: ChiSquare and Some Other Nonparametric Tests 351 18. Some Other (Important) Statistical Procedures You Should Know About 364 19. A Statistical Software Sampler 20. (Mini) Data Mining: A Introduction to Getting the Most Out of Your BIG Data 372 381 PART V Ten Things You'll Want to Know and Remember 395 21. The Ten (or More) Best (and Most Fun) Internet Sites for Statistics Stuff 22. The Ten Commandments of Data Collection 397 403 Appendix A: Excelcrate Your Leaming: All You Need to Know About Excel 406 Appendix B: Tables 412 Appendix C: Data Sets 428 Appendix D: Answers to Practice Questions 453 Appendix E: Math: Just the Basics 489 Appendix F: The Reward: The Brownie Recipe 494 Glossary 496 Index 504 ~IUD CON1&N15 A Note to the Student: Why I Wrote This Book xxii And a (Little) Note to the Instmctor xxiv Acknowledgments XXV And Now, About the Fourth Edition ... xxvi About the Author xxix PART I Yippee! I'm in Statistics 1. Statistics or Sadistics? Its Up to You Why Statistics? And Why Excel? A 5Minute History of Statistics Statistics: What It Is (and Isn't) What Are Descriptive Statistics? What Are Inferential Statistics? In Other Words ... Tooling Around With the Data Analysis Tools What Am I Doing in a Statistics Class? Ten Ways to Use This Book (and Learn Statistics at the Same Time!) + Icons Key to Difficulty Icons Key to "How Much Excel" Icons Glossary Summary Time to Practice little Chapter la. All You Need to Know About Formulas and Functions What's a Formula? Creating a Formula 1 5 5 6 6 8 9 10 11 11 12 14 16 17 18 18 18 19 21 21 22 Operator, OperatorGet Me a Formula! Beware the Parentheses What's a Function? Using a Function Using Functions in Formulas We're Taking Names: Naming Ranges Using Ranges RealWorld Stats Summary Time to Practice 24 24 25 26 32 33 35 37 37 37 Little Chapter lb. All You Need to Know About Using the Amazing Data Analysis Tools A look at the Data Analysis Tools Don't Have It? (Installation Again!) 40 41 43 Little Chapter le. For Mac lovers Who Are Still Using Version 2011: Rejoice!! And, for Mac lovers Who Are New to Version 2016, Rejoice More!!! A Mac Alternative to the Data Analysis Tools Getting Started With StatPlus Computing Descriptive Statistics Options and Preferences What StatPlus Can Do 44 44 45 45 47 47 PART II Ligma Freud and Descriptive Statistics 2. Computing and Understanding Averages: Means to an End Computing the Mean And Now ... Using Excel's AVERAGE Function Computing a Weighted Mean Computing the Median And Now ... Using Excel's MEDIAN Function Computing the Mode And Now ... Using Excels MODE.SNGl Function Apple Pie a la Bimodal And Now ... Using Excel's MODE.MULT Function Using the Amazing Data Analysis Tools to Compute Descriptive Statistics Make the Data Analysis Tools Output Preny When to Use What 49 51 52 53 57 59 61 64 65 67 68 69 73 74 RealWorld Stats Summary Time to Practice 75 76 76 3. Vive la Difference: Understanding Variability Why Understanding Variability ls Important Computing the Range Computing the Standard Deviation And Now ... Using Excel's STDEV.S Function Why n  1? What's Wrong With just n? What's the Big Deal? Computing the Variance And Now . .. Using Excel's VAR.S Function The Standard Deviation Versus the Variance Using the Amazing Data Analysis Tools (Again!) RealWorld Stals Summary Time to Practice 79 4. A Picture Really Is Worth a Thousand Words 96 96 Why lllustrate Data? Ten Ways to a Great Figure (Eat Less and Exercise More?) First Things First: Creating a Frequency Distribution The Classiest of Intervals The Plot Thickens: Creating a Histogram The TallyHo Method Using the Amazing Data Analysis Tools to Create a Histogram The Next Step: A Frequency Polygon Cumulating Frequencies Fat and Skinny Frequency Distributions Average Value Variability Skewness Kurtosis Excellent Charts Your First Excel Chart: A Moment to Remember (Sigh) Excellent Charts Part Deux: Making Charts Pretty Other Cool Charts Bar Charts Line Charts Pie Charts RealWorld Stats Summary Time to Practice 79 80 82 84 86 88 89 89 91 92 92 93 93 97 98 99 100 102 103 106 108 109 110 110 111 112 114 115 117 123 123 123 124 125 125 126 5. Ice Cream and Crime: Computing Correlation Coefficients What Are Correlations All About? Types of Correlation Coefficients: Flavor 1 and Flavor 2 Computing a Simple Correlation Coefficient And Now ... Using Excel's CORREL Function A Visual Picture of a Correlation: The Scatterplot Using Excel to Create a Scatterplot Bunches of Correlations: The Correlation Matrix More ExcelBunches of Correlations a la Excel Using the Amazing Data Analysis Tools to Compute Correlations Understanding What the Correlation Coefficient Means UsingYourThumb Rule A Determined Effort: Squaring the Correlation Coefficient As More Ice Cream Is Eaten, the Crime Rate Goes Up (or Association Versus Causality) Other Cool Correlations RealWorld Stats Summary Time to Practice 127 127 128 131 133 134 138 140 140 141 144 144 145 147 148 149 150 150 6. Just the Truth: An Introduction to Understanding Reliability and Validity An Introduction to Reliability and Validity What's Up With This Measurement Stuff? All About Measurement Scales A Rose by Any Other Name: The Nominal Level of Measurement Any Order Is Fine With Me: The Ordinal Level of Measurement 1 + 1 = 2: The Interval Level of Measurement Can Anyone Have Nothing of Anything? The Ratio Level of Measurement In Sum ... ReliabilityDoing It Again Until You Get It Right Test ScoresTruth or Dare Observed Score == True Score+ Error Score Different Types of Reliability How Big ls Big? Interpreting Reliability Coefficients 154 154 155 156 157 157 157 158 158 159 159 160 161 167 And If You Can'l Establish Reliability . . . Then What? Just One More Big Thing Validity Whoa! What Is the Truth? Different Types of Validity And If You Can't Establish Validity .. . Then What? A Last, Friendly Word Validity and Reliability: Really Close Cousins RealWorld Stats Summary Time to Practice 167 168 168 169 172 173 173 174 175 175 PART Ill Taking Chances for fun and Profit 7. Hypotheticals and You: Testing Your Questions So You Want to Be a Scientist... Samples and Populations The Null Hypothesis The Purposes of the Null Hypothesis The Research Hypothesis The Nondirectional Research Hypothesis The Directional Research Hypothesis Some Differences Between the Null Hypothesis and the Research Hypothesis What Makes a Good Hypothesis? RealWorld Stats Summary Time to Practice 177 179 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 187 188 190 192 192 8. Are Your Curves Normal? Probability and Why It Counts 194 Why Probability? 194 The Normal Curve (aka Lhe BellShaped Curve) 195 Hey, That's Not Normal! 196 The Central Limit Theorem 198 More Normal Curve 101 200 Our Favorite Standard Score: The z Score 203 Using Excel to Compute z Scores 206 What z Scores Represent 209 What z Scores Really Represent 213 Hypothesis Testing and z Scores: The First Step 215 RealWorld Stats 216 Summary 216 Time to Practice 217 L PART IV Significantly Different: Using Inferential Statistics 219 9. Significantly Significant: What It Means for You and Me The Concepl of SigniHcance If Only We Were PerfecL The World's Mosl Importanl Table (for This Semester Only) More About Table 9.1 Back to Type I Errors Significance Versus Meaningfulness An lntroducLion to lnferential Statistics How Inference Works How to Select What Test to Use Here's How to Use the Chan An lnLroduction to Tests of Significance How a Test of Significance Works: The Plan Here's the Picture That's Worth a Thousand Words Confidence IntervalsBe Even More Confident RealWorld Stats Summary Time Lo Practice 10. Only the Lonely: The OneSample ZTest Introduction to the OneSample ZTest The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge Computing the Test StatisLic Time for an Example So How Do I Interpret z = 2.38, p < .OS? Using the Excel Z.TEST Function to Compute the z Value RealWorld Stats Summary Time to PracLice 11. t(ea) for Two: Tests Between the Means of Different Groups Introduction to the tTest for Independent Samples The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge Computing the Test Statistic Time for an Example So How Do I Interpret t{~K, = 0.14, p > .OS? And Now ... Using Excel's T.TEST Function 221 221 222 224 225 226 228 229 230 230 231 233 233 235 236 238 238 238 240 240 241 243 244 246 246 248 249 249 251 251 252 254 254 258 259 Using the Amazing Data Analysis Tools to Compute the t Value Results Special Effects: Are Those Differences for Real? Computing and Understanding the Effect Size A Very Cool Effect Size Calculator RealWorld Stats Summary Time to Practice 12. t(ea) for Two (Again): Tests Between the Means of Related Groups 261 264 264 265 267 268 268 268 270 Introduction to the tTest for Dependent Samples The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge Computing the Test Statistic So How Do I Interpret tc21> = 2.45, p < .05? And Now . . . Using Excel's T. TEST Function Using the Amazing Data Analysis Tools to Compute the t Value RealWorld Stats Summary Time to Practice 270 271 273 276 13. Two Groups Too Many? Try Analysis of Variance 285 Introduction to Analysis of Variance The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge Different Flavors of ANOVA Computing the FTest Statistic So How Do 1 Interpret Fci. m = 8.80, p < .05? And Now . . . Using Excel's F.DIST and F.TEST Functions Using the Amazing Data Analysis Tools to Compute the F Value RealWorld Stats Summary Time to Practice 285 286 286 289 277 279 282 283 283 295 296 296 300 300 300 1'4. Two Too Many Factors: Factorial Analysis of VarianceA Brief Introduction 303 Introduction to Factorial Analysis of Variance Two Flavors of Factorial ANOVA The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge A New Flavor of ANOVA 303 304 305 307 The Main Event: Main Effects in Factorial ANOVA Even More Interesting: Interaction Effects Using the Amazing Data Analysis Tools to Compute the ANOVA F Statistic RealWorld Stats Summary Time to Practice 15. Cousins or Just Good Friends? Testing Relationships and the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient Introduction to Testing the Correlation Coefficient The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge Computing the Test Statistic So How Do I Interpret r< 28 > = .393, p < .OS? Causes and Associations (Again!) Significance Versus Meaning[ulness (Again, Again!) RealWorld Stats Summary Time to Practice 16. Predicting Who'll Win the Super Bowl: Using Linear Regression What ls Prediction All About? The Logic of Prediction Drawing the World's Best line (for Your Data) And Now ... Using Excel's SLOPE Function And Now ... Using Excel's INTERCEPT Function Using the Amazing Data Analysis Tools to Compute the Regression Equation How Good ls Our Prediction? The More Predictors, the Better? Maybe The Big Rule When It Comes to Using Multiple Predictor Variables Real•World Stats Summary Time to Practice 17. What to Do When You're Not Normal: ChiSquare and Some Other Nonparametric Tests Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics Introduction to OneSample ChiSquare Computing the ChiSquare Test Statistic 308 309 311 316 317 317 318 318 319 319 324 325 325 326 327 327 328 328 330 333 337 339 342 344 345 346 347 348 348 351 351 352 353 So How Do I Interpret x1 = 20.6, p < .05? And Now . . . Using Excel's CHISQ. TEST Function Other Nonparametric Tests You Should Know About RealWorld Stats Summary Time to Practice 356 357 360 361 362 362 18. Some Other (Important) Statistical Procedures You Should Know About Post Hoe Comparisons Multivariate Analysis of Variance Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance Analysis of Covariance Multiple Regression Logistic Regression Factor Analysis Data Mining Path Analysis Structural Equation Modeling Summary 364 365 365 366 367 367 368 368 369 370 370 371 19. A Statistical Software Sampler Selecting the Perfect Statistics Software What's Out There The Free Stuff and Open Source Stuff Time to Pay Summary 372 373 374 375 377 380 20. (Mini) Data Mining: A Introduction to Getting the Most Out of Your BIG Data Our Sample Data SetWho Doesn't Love Babies? Some Excel DataExploring Functions The DAVERAGE Function What DAVERAGE Does What DAVERAGE Looks Like Using the DAVERAGE Function The COUNTIF Function What COUNTIF Does What COUNTIF Looks Like Using the COUNTIF Function Pivot Tables and CrossTabulation: Finding Hidden Patterns Creating a Pivot Table Modifying a Pivot Table Summary Time to Practice 381 383 384 385 385 385 386 388 388 388 388 389 390 393 394 394 PARf V Ten Things You'll Want to Know and Remember 2 1. The Ten (or More) Best (and Most Fun) Internet Sites for Statistics Stuff How About Studying Statistics in Stockholm? Calculators Galore! Who's Who and What's Happened It's All Here HyperStat Data? You Want Data? More and More Resources Online Statistical Teaching Materials And, of Course, YouTube.. . 395 397 397 398 399 399 399 400 401 401 401 22. The Ten Commandments of Data Collection 403 Appendix A: Excelerate Your learning: All You Need to Know About Excel 406 Appendix B: Tables 412 Appendix C: Data Sets 4 28 Appendix D: Answers to Practice Questions 453 Appendix E: Math: just the Basics 489 Appendix F: The Reward: The Brownie Recipe 494 Glossary 496 ~a 5~ .. A HOf!.t,. 'f0 QI lfU.D&W~ WHY I WAW& 11115 ,DOOlC T his is the fourth edition of Statistics for People Who (Thinh Tltcy) Hate Statistics, Excel 2016 Edition (and also features the 2016 Macintosh version of Excel) and it was as much fun (really!) writing this revision as it was writing the earlier ones. I hope that the use of the book helps you and that the entire experience is interesting and productive. What many of the students who study statistics, as well as people in various other roles (researchers, administrators, and professionals in many different fields) , have in common (at least at the beginning of the course) is a relatively high level of anxiety, the origin of which is, more often than not, what they've 11eard from their fellow students. Often, a small part of what they have heard is truelearning statistics takes an investment of time and effort (and there's the occasional monster for a teacher). But most of what they've heard (and where most of the anxiety comes from)that statistics is unbearably difficult and confusingis just not true. Thousands of fearstruck students have succeeded where they thought they would fail. They did it by taking one thing at a time, pacing themselves, seeing illustrations of basic principles as they are applied to reallife settings, and even having some fun (see the recipe for delicious brownies in Appendix F) along the way. That's what I tried to do in writing all the editions of Statistics for People Who (Tltinh They) Hate Statistics, and I tried even harder in completing this latest revision. After a great deal of trial and error, and some successful and many unsuccessful attempts, I have learned to teach statistics in a way that I (and many of my students) think is unintimidating and informative. I have tried my absolute best to incorporate all of that experience into this book. What you will learn from this Statistics for People ... is the information you need to understand what the field and study of basic statistics is all about. You'll learn about the fundamental ideas and the most commonly used techniques to organize and make sense out of data. There's very little theory (but some), and there are few xxii A Note to the Student: Why I Wrote This Book mathematical proofs or discussion of the rationale for certain mathematical routines. And, for this Excel edition, you'll also learn how to better understand the world of statistics through the use of an easytouse, and powerful, tool. Why isn't theory and other stuff in Statistics for People Who (ThinJz Tltey) Hate Statistics? Simple. Right now, you don't need it. It's not that I don't think it is important. Rather, at this point and time in your studies, I want to offer you material at a level I think you can understand and learn with some reasonable amount of effort, while at the same time not be scared off from taking additional courses in the future. I (and your professor) want you to succeed. So, if you are looking for a detailed unraveling of the derivation of the analysis of variance F ratio, go find another good book from SAGE Publications (I'll be glad to refer you to one). But if you want to learn why and how statistics can work for you, you're in the right place. This book will help you understand the material you read in journal articles, explain what the results of many statistical analyses mean, and teach you how to perform basic statistical work. And, if you want to talk about any aspect of teaching or learning statistics, feel free to contact me. You can do this through my email address at school (njs@ku.edu). You can also keep up on anything new regarding this edition (and all versions of Statistics for People ... ) at http://edge.sagepub.com/salkindexcel4e. Good luck, and let me know how I can improve this book to even better meet the needs of the beginning statistics student. .. xxiii NO A lllT'Tl.t J NOrff:~ fr() rut IN5'TRUC1f(i)R I'd like to share two things. First, I applaud your efforts at teaching introductory statistics. While the topic may be easier for some students than others, most find the material very challenging. Your patience and hard work is appreciated by all, and if there is anything I can do lo help, please send me a note. Second, the Excel® edition of Statistics for People Who (Thinh They) Hate Statistics is not meant to be a dumbeddown book similar to others you may have seen. Nor is the title meant to convey anything other than the fact that many students new to the subject are very anxious about what's to come. This is not an academic version of a book for dummies or anything of its kind. 1 have made every effort to address students with the respect they deserve, to not patronize them, and to ensure that the material is approachable. How well I did in these regards is up to you, but 1 want to convey my very clear intent and feeling that this book contains the information needed in an introductory course and, even though there is some humor involved in my approach, nothing about the intent is anything other than serious. Thank you. Instructors can sign in at edge.sagepub.com/salkindexcel4e to access the test bank, PowerPoint9 slides, chapter outlines, discussion questions, suggested activities, sample syllabi, SAGE journal articles, video and web resources, and data files to accompany this book xxiv E verybody, and I mean everybody, at SAGE deserves a great deal of thanks for providing me with the support, guidance, and professionalism that takes only an idea (way back before the first edition) and makes it into a book like the one you are now reading, and then makes it successful. However, there are some people who have to be thanked individually for their special care and hard work. C. Deborah Laughton supported the original idea for this type of book, and Lisa CuevasShaw encouraged the writing of this particular book, which uses Excel as a framework for teaching introductory statistics. Vicki Knight is the publisher who saw to it that this revision reached fruition, and she has provided the support and patience necessary to make this a reality. Her experience, insight, advocacy, and friendship are this author's dream. I am greatly appreciative. Very special thanks to Vicki who is moving on to a new chapter in her life for all the time, good counsel, hard work, and dedication to making this book, and my other SAGE publications, successful. I will be losing an editor, but I have gained a lifelong friend. Others who deserve a special note of thanks are Yvonne McDuffee, editorial assistant; Katie Ancheta, elearning editor; Susannah Goldes, marketing manager; and Libby Larson, production editor. Special thanks goes to Paula Fleming for her sharp eye and sound copyediting, which makes this material read as well as it does. I also want to thank the following people for their help in providing feedback on the previous edition as well as this edition. Apologies to those I may have missed. Jacqueline S. Craven, Delta State University Yating Liang, Missouri State University Patty Kero, University of Montana Robin Spaid, Morgan State University David C. Kershaw, Slippery Rock University Douglas Fairbanks Threet, Foothill College Soomi lee, University of la Verne .. Jed W Utsinger, Ohio University XXV W hat you read above about this book renects my thoughts about why I wrote this book in the first place. But it tells you little about this new edition. Any book is always a work in progress, and the Excel edition of Statistics for People Who (Thi nil They) Hate Statistics is no exception. Over the past 8 years or so, many people have told me how helpfol this book is, and others have told me how they would like it to change and why. In revising this book, I am trying to meet the needs of all audiences. Some things have remained the same, and some have changed. There are always new things worth consideration and different ways to present old themes and ideas. Here's a list of what you'll find that's new in Statistics for People Wlto (Thinll They) Hate Statistics, Excel 2016 Edition. • There are a bunch of new exercises at the end of each chapter. Not only arc there more exercises, but they also vary more in their level of application and (l hope) interest. These exercises use data sets that are available al edge.sagepub.com/salkindex cel4e and directly from the author at njs@ku.edu. The version of Excel that these were developed for is Excel 2016 for Windows and Excel 2016 for the Mac, but the files will work with earlier versions of Excel as well. • At the end of each chapter is a RealWorld Stats feature that provides an applied example of the content covered in the chapter. It's an attempt to further show the reader how statistics is, and can be, applied in the everyday world . • The answers to the Time to Practice questions are now in a separate appendix (Appendix 0). After going back and forth with students and faculty about the best placement, this seemed to be the winning location. • A new Chapter 20 includes an introduction to dealing with large data sets using certain Excel functions and pivot tables. This is not a total treatment of data mining (which would be xxvi And Now, About the Fourth Edition ... • • • • • • • far too ambitious a task for a book at this level) but simply shows how certain database and other categories or functions and formulas can help make the data in big data sets easier to work with and the results more understandable. A new Appendix E presents some basic math instruction and some practice for those who need to brush up on that material. The fourth edition features the latest version of Excel, from Office 2016 (for the Windows platform) and the 2016 version for the Mac. There are some significant changes from prior versions, so students (and others) might want to look through Appendix A, which is a quick guide to some main features. There's a new Little Chapter le that is for people sticking with the 2011 version of Excel for the Mac. This chapter reviews StatPlus, an Excel addon, that does many of the things that the Data Analysis Tools do. Note that the trial version is a freebie but the complete version requires purchase. Online Resources for instructors at edge.sagepub.com/salkind excel4e include a test bank, PowerPoint slides, chapter outlines, discussion questions, suggested activities, sample syllabi, SAGE journal articles, video and web resources, and data files. Openaccess study tools for students at edge.sagepub.com/ salkindexcel4e include data files, quizzes, flashcards, video and web resources, SAGE journal articles, action plan checklists and more. But wait, there's more! OK, folks (and especially Mac fans), hold on to your hat. As with the Windows version of Excel, now the Mac version offers the toohandytobetrue Data Analysis Tools (discussed throughout the book). The Mac Excel folks have been waiting for this for years. So, for almost every operation that you can perform with the Windows version or Excel, ditto x 10 for the Mac version or Excel. Finally. Instructors can sign in at edge.sagepub.com/salkindexcel4e to access the test bank, PowerPoint slides, chapter outlines, discussion questions, suggested activities, sample syllabi, SAGE journal articles, video and web resources, and data files to accompany this book. Openaccess study tools for students at edge.sagepub.com/ salkindexcel4e include data ntes, quizzes, flashcards, video and web resources, SAGE journal articles, learning objectives, and action plan checklists. Whatever typos and such have appeared in any edition of this book are entirely my fault, and I apologize to the proressors and xxvii xxviii Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics students who were inconvenienced by their appearance. You can find a list of typos from the previous printings and editions of this book at www.statisticsforpeople.com. And I so appreciate all the letters, calls, and emails pointing out these errors and making this fourth edition a better book for it. We have all made every effort in this edition to correct them and hope we did a reasonably good job. Let me hear from you with suggestions, criticisms, nice notes, and so on. Good luck. Neil J. Salkind University of Kansas njs@ku.edu Neil J. Salkind received his PhD from the University of Maryland in Human Development, and after teaching for 35 years at the University of Kansas, he remains as a Professor Emeritus in the Department of Psychology and Research in Education, where he continues to collaborate with colleagues and work with students. His early interests were in the area of children's cognitive development, and after research in the areas of cognitive style and (what was then known as) hyperactivity, he was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of North Carolina's Bush Center for Child and Family Policy. His work then changed direction and the focus was on child and family policy, specifically the impact of alternative forms of public support on various child and family outcomes. He has delivered more than 150 professional papers and presentations; written more than 100 trade and textbooks; and is the author of Statistics for People Who (Thin1z They) Hate Statistics (SAGE), Theories of Human Development (SAGE), and Exploring Research (Prentice Hall). He has edited several encyclopedias, including the Encyclopcdia ofHwnan Development, the Encyclopcclia of Measurement and Statistics, and the recently published Encyclopcclia of Research Design. He was editor of Child Development Abstracts and Bibliography for 13 years and lives in Lawrence, Kansas, where he likes to letterpress print (see https://sites.google.com/site/bigboypressoO<.s/ for more), read, swim with the Lawrence River City Sharks, bake brownies (see the recipe at http://www.statisticsforpeople.com/The_Brown.html), and poke around old Volvos and old houses .. xxix SAGE was founded in 1965 by Sara Miller Mccune to support the dissemination of usable knowledge by publishing innovative and highquality research and teaching content. Today, we publish over 900 journals, including those of more than 400 learned societies, more than 800 new books per year, and a growing range of library products including archives, data, case studies, reports, and video. SAGE remains majorityowned by our founder, and after Sara's lifetime will become owned by a charitable trust that secures our continued independence. Los Angeles J London I New Delhi I Singapore I Washington DC J Melbourne N ot much to shout about, you might say? Let me take a minute and show you how some very accomplished scientists use this widely used set or tools we call statistics. • Michelle Lampl is a physician and an anthropologist and the director or the Center for the Study or Human Health at Emory University. She was having coffee with a friend, who commented on how quickly her young infant was growing. In fact, the new mother spoke as if her son were "growing like a weed." Being a curious scientist (as all scientists should be), Dr. Lampl thought she might actually examine how rapid this child's growth, and that or others, was during infancy. She proceeded to measure growth in a group of children on a daily basis and found, much to her surprise, that some infants grew as much as 1 inch overnight! Some growth spurt. o Want to Jmow more? Why not read the original work? You can find more about this in Lampl, M., Veldhuis, j. D., & Johnson, M. L. (1992). Saltation and stasis: A model or human growth. Science, 258, 801803. • Sue Kemper is the Roberts Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the University of Kansas and works on the most interesting of projects. She and several other researchers studied a group or nuns and examined how their early experiences, activities, personality characteristics, and other information related to their health during their late adult years. Most notably, this diverse group of scientists (including psychologists, linguists, neurologists, and others) wanted to know how well all this information predicts the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease. Kemper and her colleagues found that the complexity of the nuns' writing during their early 20s was related to the nuns' risk for Alzheimer's SO, 60, and 70 years later. l Statistics for People Who (Tltinh They) Hate Statistics 2 0 Want to lmow more? Why not read the original work? You can find more about this in Snowdon, D. A., Kemper, s. J., Mortimer, J. A., Greiner, L. H., Wekstein, D. R., & Markesbery, W. R. (1996). linguistic ability in early life and cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life: Findings from the nun study.Journal of the American Medical Association, 275, 528532. • Aletha Huston (a very distinguished professor emerita) from the University of Texas in Austin devoted a good deal of her professional work to understanding what effects television watching has on young children's psychological development. Among other things, she and her late husband,John C. Wright, investigated the impact that the amount of educational television programs watched during the early preschool years might have on outcomes in the later school years. They found convincing evidence that children who watch educational programs such as M,: Rogers and Sesame Street do better in school than those who do not. o Want lo lmow more? Why not read the original work? You can find more about this in Collins, P. A., Wright, J. C., Anderson, R., Huston, A. C., Schmitt, K., & McElroy, E. (1997, April). Effects of early cltilcl110od media use 011 adolescent achievement. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Washington, D.C. All of these researchers had a specific question they found interesting and used their intuition, curiosity, and excellent training to answer it. As part of their investigations, they used this set of tools we call statistics to make sense out of all the information they collected. Without these tools, all this information would have been just a collection of unrelated outcomes. The outcomes would be nothing that Lampl could have used to reach a conclusion about children's growth, or Kemper could have used to better understand aging and cognition (and perhaps Alzheimer's disease), or Huston and Wright could have used to better understand the impact of watching television on young children's achievement and social development. Statisticsthe science of organizing and analyzing information to make it more easily understoodmade these tasks doable. The reason that any of the results from such studies are useful is that we can use statistics to make sense out of them. And that's exactly the goal of this bookto provide you with an understanding of these Part I • Yippee! I'm in Statistics basic tools and how researchers use them and, of course, how to use them yourself. In this first part of Statistics for People Who (Thinll They) Hate Statistics, Excel 2016 Edition, you will be introduced to what the study of statistics is about and why it's well worth your efforts to master the basicsthe important terminology and ideas that are central to the field. This part gives you a solid preparation for the rest of the book. We'll also be getting right into the Excel material with two little chapters that follow Chapter 1one chapter about formulas and functions (Little Chapter la) and one chapter about the use of the Data Analysis tools (Little Chapter lb). And this third edition uses Excel 2016 (for Windows and the Mac). Although you can use other versions of Excel and do fine, you'll be much better equipped to follow the material in these pages and do the exercises if you have the current version of this pretty cool application. It is probably available through the computer center or information technology department at your school or even at your local public library if you don't have access through the class that you might taking, so check out those possibilities before you buy it. .. 3 Statistics o~ Sadistics? It~ Up to You Difficulty Scale © ® © © © (really easy) •• + WHAT YOU'LL LEARN ABOUT IN THIS CHAPTER What statistics is all about + Why you should take statistics + How to succeed in this course WUY 5TATl5TIC5? You've heard it all before, right? "Statistics is difficult," "The math involved is impossible," "I don't know how to use a computer," "What do I need this stuff for?" "What do I do next?" and the famous cry of the introductory statistics student, "I don't get itl" Well, relax. Students who study introductory statistics find themselves, at one time or another, thinking at least one of the above and quite possibly sharing the thought with another student, their spouse, a colleague, or a friend. And all kidding aside, some statistics courses can easily be described as sadistics. That's because the books are repetitiously boring and the authors have no imagination. That's not the case for you. The fact that you or your instructor has selected Statistics for People Who (T'1inll They) Hate Statistics, Excel 2016 Edition shows that you're ready to take the right approachone that is unintimidating, informative, and applied (and even a little fun) and that tries to teach you what you need to know about using statistics as the valuable tool that it is. s Part I + Yippee! I'm in Statistics 6 If you're using this book in a class, it also means that your instructor is clearly on your side. He or she knows that statistics can be intimidating but has taken steps to see that it is not intimidating for you. As a matter of fact, we'll bet there's a good chance (as hard as it may be to believe) that you'll be enjoying this class in just a few short weeks. And Why Excel? Simple. It's the most popular, most powerful spreadsheet tool available today, and it can be an exceedingly important and valuable tool for learning how to use basic and some advanced statistics. In fact, many slats courses taught at the introductory level use Excel as their primary computational tool and ignore other computer programs, such as IBM~ SPSS~ Statistics (SPSS)" and Minitab. Although we are not going to teach you how to use Excel (see Appendix A for a refresher on some basic tasks), we will show you how to use it to make your statistics learning experience a better one. But like any program that takes numbers and consolidates and analyzes them, Excel is not a magic bullet or a tool to solve all your problems. It has its limitations. Unless you are an expert programmer and you can program Excel to do just about anything other statistics programs can (the language you would use is Visual Basic Applications or VBA), Excel may not look as pretty as other programs dedicated to statistical analysis or offer as many options. But at the level of introductory statistics, it is a very powerful tool that can do an awful lot of very neat things. A bit of terminology about Excel before we move on: The first ever Excellike computer application was called VisiCalc (thank you, Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston) and was known as a spreadsheet. Okay, the Excel application is known as a spreadsheet program as well, but each individual sheet is known as a worksheet. And worksheets, when combined, constitute what is known as a workbook. Fun, huh? A SHINUTt 141510RV OF 51ATf5TfC5 Before you read any funher, it would be useful to have some historical perspective about this topic called statistics. After all, almost every undergraduate in the social, behavioral, and biological sciences and every graduate student in education, nursing, "SPSS is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. Chapter I • Statistics or Sadistics? psychology, social welfare and social services, anthropology, and ... (you get the picture) is required to take this course. Wouldn't it be nice to have some idea from whence the topic it covers came? Of course it would. Way, way back, as soon as humans realized that counting was a good idea (as in "How many of these do you need to trade for one of those?"), collecting information became a useful skill. If counting counted, then one would know how many times the sun would rise in one season, how much food was needed to last the winter, and what amount of resources belonged to whom. That was just the beginning. Once numbers became part of language, it seemed like the next step was to attach these numbers to outcomes. That started in earnest during the 17th century, when the first set of data pertaining to populations was collected. From that point on, scientists (mostly mathematicians, but then physical and biological scientists) needed to develop specific tools to answer specific questions. For example, Francis Gaitan (a halfcousin of Charles Darwin, by the way), who lived from 1822 to 1911, was very interested in the nature of human intelligence. He also speculated that hair loss was due to the intense energy that went into thinking. No, really. But back to statistics. To explore one of his primary questions regarding the similarity of intelligence among family members, he used a specific statistical tool called the correlation coefficient (first developed by mathematicians), and then he popularized its use in the behavioral and social sciences. You'll learn all about this tool in Chapter 5. In fact, most of the basic statistical procedures that you will learn about were first developed and used in the fields of agriculture, astronomy, and even politics. Their application to human behavior came much later. The past 100 years have seen great strides in the invention of new ways to use old ideas. The simplest test for examining the differences between the averages of two groups was first advanced during the early 20th century. Techniques that build on this idea were offered decades later and have been greatly refined. And the introduction of personal computers and such programs as Excel has opened up the use of sophisticated techniques to anyone who wants to explore these fascinating topics. The introduction of these powerful personal computers has been both good and bad. It's good because most statistical analyses no longer require access to a huge and expensive mainframe computer. Instead, a simple personal computer costing less than $250 or a cloud account can do 95% of what 95% of the people need. On the 1 8 Part I • Yippee! I'm in Statistics other hand, less than adequately educated students (such as your fellow students who passed on taking this course!) will take any old data they have and think that by running them through some sophisticated analysis, they will have reliable, trustworthy, and meaningful outcomesnot true. What your professor would say is "Garbage in, garbage out"; if you don't start with reliable and trustworthy data, what you'll have after your data are analyzed are unreliable and untrustworthy results. Today, statisticians in all different areas, from criminal justice lo geophysics to psychology, find themselves using basically the same techniques to answer different questions. There are, of course, important differences in how data are collected, but for the most part, the analyses (the plural of analysis) that are done following the collection of data (the plural of datum) tend to be very similar, even if called something different. The moral here? This class will provide you with the tools to understand how statistics are used in almost any discipline. Pretty neat, and all for just three or four credits. If you want to learn more about the history of statistics and see a historical time line, great places to start arc Saint Anselm's College at www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/biostatshist.html and the University of CaliforniaLos Angeles at www.stat.ucla .edu/history/. Okay. Five minutes is up, and you know as much as you need to know about the history of statistics. let's move on to what it is (and isn't). STATISTICS: WUAT 1115 (ANO ISN'TI Statistics for People W/10 (Tltinll They) Hate Statistics, Excel 2016 Edition is a book about basic statistics and how to apply them to a variety of different situations, including the analysis and understanding of information. In the most general sense, statistics describes a set of tools and techniques that are used for describing, organizing, and interpreting information or data. Those data might be the scores on a test taken by students participating in a special math curriculum, the speed with which problems are solved, the number of side effects when patients use one type of drug rather than another, the number of errors in each inning of a World Series game, or the average price of a dinner in an upscale restaurant in Santa Fe, New Mexico (not cheap). 9 Chapter I • Statistics or Sadistics? In all of these examples, and the million more we could think of, data are collected, organized, summarized, and then interpreted. In this book, you'll learn about collecting, organizing, and summarizing data as part of descriptive statistics. And then you'll learn about interpreting data when you learn about the usefulness of inferential statistics. What Are Descriptive Statistics? Descriptive statistics are used to organize and describe the characteristics of a collection of data. The collection is sometimes called a data set or just data. For example, the following list shows you the names of 22 college students, their major areas of study, and their ages. If you needed to describe what the most popular college major is, you could use a descriptive statistic that summarizes their most frequent choice (called the mode). In this case, the most common major is psychology. And if you wanted to know the average age, you could easily compute another descriptive statistic that identifies this variable (that one's called the mean). Both of these simple descriptive statistics are used to describe data. They do a fine job of allowing us to represent the characteristics of a large collection of data such as the 22 cases in our example. Name I Major Major Name Age I I Age Richard Education 19 Elizabeth English 21 Sara Psychology 18 Bill Psychology 22 Andrea Education 19 Hadley Psychology 23 Steven Psychology 21 Buffy Education 21 Jordan Education 20 Chip Education 19 Pam Education 24 Homer Psychology Michael Psychology 21 Margaret English 22 Liz Psychology 19 Courtney Psychology 24 Chemistry 19 Leonard Psychology 21 Nursing 20 Jeffrey Chemistry 18 18 Emily Spanish 19 Nicole I Mike Kent History ·.~ ~~ = i 18 Part I 10 + Yippee! I'm in Statistics So watch how simple this is. To find the most frequently selected major, just find the one that occurs most often. And to find the average age, just add up all the age values and divide by 22. You're rightthe most often occurring major is psychology (9 times), and the average age is 20.3 (actually 20.27). Look, Ma! No handsyou're a statistician. What Are Inferential Statistics? Inferential statistics are often (but not always) the next step after you have collected and summarized data. Inferential statistics are used to make inferences based on a smaller group of data (such as our group of 22 students) about a possibly larger one (such as all the undergraduate students in the College of Arts and Sciences). A smaller group of data is often called a sample , which is a portion, or a subset, of a population. For example, all the fifth graders in Newark (your author's fair city of origin), New Jersey, would be a population (the population is all the occurrences with certain characteristics, in this case, being in fifth grade and attending school in Newark), whereas a selection of 150 of these students would be a sample. Let's look at another example. Your marketing agency asks you (a newly hired researcher) to determine which of several names is most appealing for a new brand of potato chip. Will it be Chipsters? FunChips? Crunchies? As a statistics pro (we know we're moving a bit ahead of ourselves, but keep the faith), you need to find a small group of potato chip eaters who are representative of all potato chip fans and ask these people to tell you which one of the three names they like the most. Then, if you do things right, you can easily extrapolate the findings to the huge group of potato chip eaters. Or let's say you're interested in the best treatment for a particular type of disease. Perhaps you'll try a new drug as one alternative, a placebo (a substance that is known not to have any effect) as another alternative, and nothing as the third alternative to see what happens. Well, you find out that more patients get bener when no action is taken and nature (and we assume that's the only factor or set of factors that differentiate the groups) just takes its course! The drug does not have any effect. Then, with that information, you can extrapolate to the larger group of patients who suffer from the disease, given the results of your experiment. 11 Chapter 1 • Statistics or Sadistics? In Other Words ... StatisLics is a tool that helps us understand the world around us. It does so by organizing information we've collected and then letting us make certain statements about how characteristics of those data are applicable to new senings. Descriptive and inferential statistics work hand in hand, and which statistic you use and when depends on the question you want answered. And today, a knowledge of statistics is more important than ever because it provides us with the tools to make decisions that are based on empirical (observed) evidence and not our own biases or beliefs. Want to know whether early intervention programs work? Then test whether they work and provide that evidence to the court where a ruling will be made on the viability of a new school bond issue that could pay for those programs. 1001ING AROUNP WITU TUt, PATA ANAIV515 10015 An awful lot of what you need to know about using Excel can be found in Appendix A. However, certain Excel procedures are available only if you have the Data Analysis tools installed (and we use those tools in several chapters throughout the book). Please note that Lhis Excel addin is sometimes called the Data Analysis Toolpak and sometimes the Data Analysis tool or Data Analysis tools and sometimes the Analysis Toolpak. These are all different names for the same thing. We'll refer to it as Data Analysis tools to cover all the bases. The Data Analysis tools are a spectacular Excel addin. Addins are special sets of tools that are orten not installed when Excel was originally installed. How do you know whether Data Analysis tools are installed on the computer you are using? If the Data Analysis tools option doesn't appear on your Data tab as Data Analysis tools (as you see it appears in Figure 1.1) in the Windows version, you need to install it. Either ask your instructor to have it installed on the network level where Excel is installed or install it on your own machine by doing Lhe following. In the Mac version, it appears as the Data Analysis option on the Tools menu, so Mac users have no need for any installation steps. .. 12 Part I • Yippee! I'm in Statistics Q§ll,11• The Data Analysis Tools Option on the Data Tab 1. Click the File tab and then click Options. 2. Click AddIns and then in the AddIns box, select Analysis Toolpak (see, il's named different things in different places). 3. Click Go under Manage, at the bottom of the screen. 4. In the AddIns box, click the Analysis Toolpak check box and then click OK. You are now ready to make your Excel activities even that much more productive and fun. You can learn how to use the Data Analysis tools in little Chapter lb. WUAT AH I POING IN A 5TATl5TIC5 CLA55? You might find yourself using this book for many reasons. You might be enrolled in an introductory statistics class. Or you might be reviewing for your comprehensive exams. Or you might even be reading this on summer vacation (horrors!) in preparation for a more advanced class. In any case, you are a statistics student, whether you have to take a final exam at the end of a formal course or you're just in it of your own accord. But there are plenty of good reasons to be studying this materialsome fun, some serious, and some both. Here's the list of some of the things that my students hear at the beginning of our introductory statistics course: l. Statistics 101 or Statistics l or whatever it's called at your school looks great listed on your transcript. Kidding aside, this may be a required course for you to complete your major. But even if it is not, having these skills is definitely a big plus when it comes time to apply for a job or for further schooling. And with more advanced courses, your resume will be even more impressive. Chapter l + Statistics or Sadistics? 2. If this is not a required course, taking basic statistics sets you apart from those who do not. It shows that you are willing to undertake a course that is above average with regard to difficulty and commitment. And, as the political and economic (and sports!) worlds become more "accountable," more emphasis is being placed on analytic skills. Who knows, this course may be your ticket to a job! 3. Basic statistics is an intellectual challenge of a kind that you might not be used to. There's a good deal of thinking that's required, a bit of math, and some integration of ideas and application. The bottom line is that all this activity adds up to what can be an invigorating intellectual experience because you learn about a whole new area or discipline. 4. There's no question that having some background in statistics makes you a better student in the social or behavioral sciences, because you will have a better understanding not only of what you read in journals but also of what your professors and colleagues may be discussing and doing in and out of class. You will be amazed the first time you say to yourself, "Wow, I actually understand what they're talking about" And it will happen over and over again, because you will have the basic tools necessary to understand exactly how scientists reach the conclusions they do . .5. If you plan to pursue a graduate degree in education, anthropology, economics, nursing, sociology, or any one of many other social, behavioral, and biological pursuits, this course will give you the foundation you need to move further. 6. There are many different ways of thinking about, and approaching, different types of problems. The set of tools you learn about in this book (and this course) will help you look at interesting problems from a new perspective. And, while not apparent now, this new way of thinking can be brought to new situations. 7, Finally, you can brag that you completed a course that everyone thinks is the equivalent of building and running a nuclear reactor. l3 14 Part I + Yippee! I'm in Statistics TtN WAY5 TO U5t, TUl5 0001( (ANO 1tARN 5TATl5TIC5 AT TUt, 5AHt, TIHt,/J Yep. Just what the world needsanother statistics book. But this one is different. It is directed at the student, is not condescending, is informative, and is as basic as possible in its presentation. It makes no presumptions about what you should know before you start and proceeds in slow, small steps, which lets you pace yourself. However, there has always been a general aura surrounding the study of statistics that it's a difficult subject to master. And we don't say otherwise, because parts of it are challenging. On the other hand, millions and millions of students have mastered this topic, and you can, too. Here are 10 hints to close this introductory chapter before we move on to our first topic. 1. You're not dumb. That's true. If you were, you would not have gotten this far in school. So, treat statistics as you would any other new course. Attend the lectures, study the material, do the exercises in the book and from class, and you' ll do fine. Rocket scientists know statistics, but you don't have to be a rocket scientist to succeed in statistics. 2. How do you know statistics is hard? Is statistics difficult? Yes and no. If you listen to friends who have taken the course and didn't work hard and didn't do well, they'll surely volunteer to tell you how hard it was and how much of a disaster it made of their entire semester, if not their lives. And let's not forget we always tend to hear from complainers. So, we'd suggest that you start this course with the attitude that you'll wait and see how it is and judge the experience for yourself. Better yet, talk to several people who have had the class and get a good idea of what they think. Don't base your expectations on just one spoilsport's experience. 3. Don't skip lesso~work through the chapters in sequence. Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics, Excel 2016 Edition is written so that each chapter provides a foundation for the next one in the book. When you are all done with the course, you will (I hope) continue to use this book as a reference. So if you need a particular value from a table, you might consult Appendix B. Or if you need to remembe r how to compute the standard deviation, you might turn to Chapter 3. But for now, read each chapter in the sequence that it appears. It's okay to skip around and see what's offered down the road. Just don't study later chapters before you master earlier ones. 4. Form a study group. This is a big hint and one of the most basic ways to ensure some success in this course. Early in the semester, arrange to study with friends or classmates. If you don't have any friends who are in the same class as you, then make some new ones or offer to study with someone who looks as happy to be there as you are. Studying with others allows you to help them if you know the material better, or to benefit from those who know some material better than you. Set a specific time each week to get togethe r for an hour and go over the exercises at the end of the chapter or Chapter I • Statistics or Sadistics? s. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 15 ask questions of one another. Take as much time as you need. Studying with others is an invaluable way to help you understand and master the material in this course. Ask your teacher questions, and then ask a friend. If you do not understand what you are being taught in class, ask your professor to clarify it. Have no doubt if you don't understand the material, then you can be sure that others do not as well. More often than not, instructors welcome questions. And especially because you've read the material before class, your questions should be well informed and help everyone in class to better understand the material. Do the exercises at the end of the chapters. The exercises are based on the material and the examples in the chapter they follow. They are there to help you apply the concepts that were taught in the chapter and build your confidence at the same time. If you can answer these endofchapter exercises, then you are well on your way to mastering the content of the chapter. Correct answers to each exercise are provided in Appendix D. Practice, practice, practice. Yes, it's a very old joke: Q. How do you get to Carnegie Hall? A. Practice, practice, practice. Well, it's no different with basic statistics. You have to use what you learn and use it frequently to master the different ideas and techniques. This means doing the exercises in the back of Chapters 1 through 17 and Chapter 20 as well as taking advantage of any other opportunities you have to understand what you have learned. Look for applications to make it more real. In your other classes, you probably have occasion to read journal articles, talk about the results of research, and generally discuss the importance of the scientific method in your own area of study. These are all opportunities to see how your study of statistics can help you better understand the topics under class discussion as well as the area of beginning statistics. The more you apply these new ideas, the fuller your understanding wi II be. Browse. Read over the assigned chapter first; then go back and read it with more intention. Take a nice leisurely tour of Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics to see what's contained in the various chapters. Don't rush yourself. It's always good to know what topics lie ahead as well as to familiarize yourself with the content that will be covered in your current statistics class. Have fun. This might seem like a strange thing to say, but it all boils down to you mastering this topic rather than letting the course and its demands master you. Set up a study schedule and follow it, ask questions in class, and consider this intellectual exercise to be one of growth. Mastering new material is always exciting and satisfying it's part of the human spirit. You can experience the same satisfaction herejust keep your eye on the ball and make the necessary commitment to stay current with the assignments and work hard. 16 Part I • Yippee! I'm in Statistics And a short note for Mac users. Over the years, the Excel people at MiGrosoft have become increasingly kind to users of the Macintosh version. The latest versions of Excel for a Windows operating system and a Macintosh operating system are almost identical. And, as we have mentioned before, for the first time in the history of the galaxy, the Mac version now comes with the Data Analysis tools, the great convenience that the Windows version has provided for years. One big difference between the Windows and the Mac version (and it really isn't that big) is the keystrokes that one uses to accomplish particular tasks. So, for example, instead of using the Ctrl+C key combination in Windows to copy highlighted text windows, the Mac uses the Apple or the Command key (the cool little key on the lower left of the keyboard with the four little squiggles) in combination with the C key to accomplish the same. This Apple key is also referred to (believe it or not) as the splat, the cloverleaf. the butterfly, the beanie, or the flower key. Using Excel in one operating system or the other (or both) requires a very similar set of tasks, and you should have no problem making the adjustment. Plus, both the Windows and the Mac version of Excel can read each other's files, so you are safe exchanging files between one operating system and the other. All that said, if they really want to impress their friends, Mac users can go to System Preferences and reconfigure the keyboard to ensure that Windows and Mac keystrokes are exactly the same! + ICON5 An icon is a symbol. Throughout Statistics for People ... , you'll see a variety of icons. Here's what each one is and what each represents: This icon represents information that goes beyond the regular text. At times we may want to elaborate on a particular point and find we can do so more easily outside of the flow of the usual material. Here, we discuss some more technical ideas and tips to give you a sampling of topics beyond the scope of this course. You might find these interesting and useful. Chapter 1 • Statistics or Sadis ties? 17 Throughout Statistics for People . .. , you'll find a smallsteps icon like the one you see here. This indicates that a set of steps is coming up that will direct you through a particular process. These steps have been tested and approved by whatever federal agency approves these things. That finger with rhe bow is a cute icon, but its primary purpose is to help reinforce important points about the topic that you just read about. Try to emphasize these points in your studying, because they are usually central to the topic. Many of the chapters in Statistics for People ... provide detailed information about one or more statistical procedures and the computation that accompanies them. The computer icon is used to identify the "Using the Amazing Data Analysis Tools to ... " section of the chapter. The more Excel icon identifies additional information on the Excel feature that has just been mentioned or worked with in the text. f~,A ~ Appendix A, Excelerate Your Learning: All You Need to Know About Excel, contains a collection of 50 basic and important (and timesaving) tasks that anyone who uses Excel should know. Appendix B contains important tables you will learn about and need throughout the book. And, in working through the exercises in this book, you will use the data sets in Appendix C. In the exercises, you'll find references to data sets with names like "Chapter 2 Data Set l," and each of these sets is shown in Appendix C. You can either enter the data manually or download them from the publisher's site at http://edge .sagepub.com/salkindexcel4e or get them directly from the author. Just send a note to njs@ku.edu and don't forget to mention the edition for which you need the data sets. Appendix D contains answers to endofchapter questions, Appendix E contains a primer on math for those who could use a refresher, and Appendix F offers the longsoughtafter brownie recipe. l<tV TO DIFFICUITV ICON5 To help you along a bit, we placed a difficulty index at the beginning of each chapter. This adds some fun to the start of each chapter, but Part I • Yippee! I'm in Statistics 18 it's also a useful tip to let you know what's coming and how difficult chapters are in relation to one another. © (very hard) © © (hard) © © © (not too hard, but not easy either) ©©©©(easy) © © © © © (very easy) ICtY TO "UOW HUCU tXCtl" ICONS To help you along a bit more, we placed a "How Much Excel" index at the beginning of each chapter. This adds even more run (groan) to the start of each chapter, but it also lets you know how much Excel material is contained in the chapter. How much Excel? ~ (just a mention) ~ ~ (some) ~ r,1. ~ (lots) .. ~ ~ tifl. {lots and lots) ~~~~~ (a ton) GLOSSARY Bo1ded terms in the text are included in the glossary at the back of the book.  SUMMARY 't That couldn't have been that bad, right? We want to encourage you to continue reading and not worry about what's difficult or timeconsuming or too complex for you to understand and apply. Just take one chapter at a time, as you did this one. Chapter I • Statistics or Sadistics? TIME TO PRACTICE Because there's no substitute for the real thing, Chapters 1 through 17 and Chapter 20 each end with a set of exercises that will help you review the material that was covered in the chapter. As noted above, the answers to these exercises can be found near the end of the book in Appendix D. For example, here is the first set of exercises (but don't look for any answers for these because these are kind of "on your own" answerseach answer is highly tied to your own experiences and interest). 1. Interview someone who uses statistics in his or her everyday work. It might be your adviser, an instructor, a researcher who lives on your block, a market analyst for a company, a city planner, or ... Ask the person what his or her first statistics course was like. Find out what the person liked and didn't like. See if this individual has any suggestions to help you succeed. And most important, ask the person about how he or she uses these newtoyou tools at work. 2. We hope that you are part of a study group or, if that is not possible, that you have a telephone, email, instant messaging, or webcam study buddy (or even more than one). And, of course, plenty of Facebook friends. Talk to your group or a fellow student in your class about similar likes, dislikes, fears, etc. about the statistics course. What do you have in common? Not in common? Discuss with your fellow student strategies to overcome your fears. 3. Search through your local newspaper (or any other publication) and find the results of a survey or interview about any topic. Summarize the results and do the best job you can describing how the researchers who were involved, or the authors of the survey, came to the conclusions they did. Their methods and reasoning may or may not be apparent. Once you have some idea of what they did, try to speculate as to what other ways the same information might be collected, organized, and summarized. 4. Go to the library (either in person or online) and find a copy of a journal article in your own discipline. Then, go through the article and highlight the section (usually the "Results" section) where statistical procedures were used to organize and analyze the data. You don't know much about the specifics of this yet, but how many different statistical procedures (such as ttest, mean, and calculation of the standard deviation) can you identify? Can you take the next step and tell your instructor how the results relate to the research question or the primary topic of the research study? 19 Part I 20 s. + Yippee! I'm in Statistics Find five websites that contain data on any topic and write a brief description of what type of information is offered and how it is organized. For example, if you go to the mother of all data sites, the US Census (www.census.gov), you' ll find links to hundreds of databases, tables, and other informative tools. Try to find data and information that fit in your own discipline. 6. And the big extracredit assignment is to find someone who actually uses Excel for daily data analysis needs. Ask why he or she uses Excel rather than a more specialized program such as SPSS or Minitab. Also, ask if there is anything specific about Excel that makes it stand out as a tool for data analysis. You may very well find these good folks in everything from political science to nursing, so search widely! 7. Finally, as your last in this first set of exercises, come up with five of the most interesting questions you can about your own area of study or interest. Do your best to come up with questions for which you would want real, existing information or data to answer. Be a scientist! .All You Need to Know About Formulas and Functions Difficulty Scale ©© (a little tough, but invaluable to stick with) How much Excel? ... tdl ~ t.a (lots and lots) WHAT YOU'LL LEARN ABOUT IN THIS CHAPTER iii,. + The difference between formulas and functions + + + How to create and use a formula The important Excel functions How to select and use a function T here may be nothing more valuable in your Excel magic tool box than formulas and functions. They both allow you to bypass (very) tedious calculations and get right to the heart of the matter. Both formulas and functions are shortcutsand both work in different ways and do different things. Let's start with formulas. WUAT'5 A FORHULA? You probably already know the answer to that question. A formula is a set of mathematical operators that performs a particular mathematical task. For example, here's a simple formula: 2+2= 21 Part I 22 + Yippee! I'm in Statistics The operator+ tells you to add certain values (a 2 and another 2) together to produce the outcome (4). This is a simple one. Here's one that's a bit more advanced and one with which you will become more familiar in Chapter 16 of Statistics for People ... : Y = bX + a (lA.1) This is the formula that is used to predict the value of Y' from our knowledge of the values of b, X, and a. We'll worry about what all those symbols mean later. For now, just know this is a formula that contains a bunch of symbols and mathematical operators and helps us compute numbers we need to make decisions. Excel is a formula engine just ready to help make your learning of statistics easier. Creating a Fonnula A formula is created through these steps: 1. Click on the cell in which you want the results of the formula to appear. 2. Enter an equal sign, which looks like this: =. All formulas begin with an equal sign, no matter what else they contain. 3. Enter the formula. No spaces in formulas pleaseExcel does not like them. 4. Press the Enter key, and voila! The results of the formula will appear in the selected cell. For example, let's enter the formula that was shown earlier 2 + 2and see how these steps work. As you can see in Figure lA.l, we selected Cell Al. Figure 1 A. l Selecting a Cell Into Which a Formula Will Be Entered Al Chapter l A + All You Need to Know About Formulas and Functions 1. The equal sign is entered, as shown in Figure lA.2. And, as you can see, the formula bar at the top of the column becomes active. Everything we enter in Cell Al will appear in the formula bar. Also, note that Excel automatically enters the name of the last function used (in this example it is AVERAGE much more about functions soon). Entering the Equal Sign to Indicate the Beginning of a Formula  A r B C 2. Enter the rest of the formula, which in this case is (2+4)/2, as you see in Figure lA.3. Figure 1 A.3 Entering the Formula in Cell A 1 AVfllAGk ~ A 1 !•(2+4@ 2I • 1 )< "' =!2•41/2 /,, C B D 3. Press Enter, and the value of the formula is returned to the cell, as you see in Figure lA.4. And, if you click on cell Al (as we did in Figure lA.4), you can see the formula located in that cell. In all cases, when a formula is entered into a cell, you see the results of that formula in the cell and the formula itself in the formula bar. In this case, the formula (2+4)/2 (shown in the formula bar) returns the result of 3. Figure 1 A.4 The Value of a Formula Being Returned to the Cell > Al 1 , A B " J. C r  , i='~ zr, =(2+4)/2 0 .L! 23 Part I + Yippee! I'm in Statistics 24 A few notes: • A formula always begins with an equal sign, which tells Excel that what follows is the formula. • The formula itself always appears in the formula bar. • The results or the formula (and not the formula itselO are returned to the selected cell. This is the simplest example or how to use a formula. Formulas can become as complex as you need them to be. Want to see the formula behind the scenes in a worksheet? Just use the Ctrl+' key combination to toggle between formulas and the results of those formulas. The ' key is to the left of the number 1 key near the top of the keyboard. Operator, OperatorGet Me a Formula! You have just seen that even the simplest formulas consist of operators. In this case, the only operators are a plus (+) sign and a division (/) sign, which direct Excel to add the two values you see in Figure lA.3, divide by 2, and return the sum to Cell Al. Addition and division are just two of the operations you can perform. The most important operations and the symbols you use to accomplish them are shown in the following table. Operator Symbol Example What It Does Addition + (plus) =2+5 Adds 2 and 5. Subtraction  (minus) c::5 3 Subtracts 3 from 5. Division / (slash) :::10/5 Divides 10 by 5. Multiplication • (asterisk) =2*5 Multiplies 2 times 5. Power of I\ =4" 2 Takes 4 to the power of 2, or squares 4. (caret) ~.~ II Beware the Parentheses When you create a formula that goes beyond a very simple one, it is critical for you to consider the order in which operations are carried out and the use of parentheses. Chapter lA • All You Need to Know About Formulas and Functions 25 Let's say that we want to find the average score on a weekly test given each Friday for a month and the scores range from O to 100. Here are Willy's scores: Week 1 78 Week 2 56 Week 3 85 Week4 92 (Willy finally got it!) We need to create a formula that will add all of the scores together and divide the sum by 4. We'll name the scores wP w2 , w3 , and w ... Here's one way we might try iL: Oops! This will work in the sense that it will produce a number, but it won't give you the outcome you wanl. What this does is add wP w 2, and w 3 together and then adds that sum to the value of (only) w .. divided by 4. This is not what we wanL. Rather, take a look at this formula: (w 1 + w 2 + w 3 + w .. )/4 This is more like it. Here, the four values are summed and then that sum is divided by 4. This one works. The lesson? Watch your parentheses! WUAT'5 A FUNCTIONi' You know that a formula is a simple set of symbols (such as numbers and operators) that performs some calculation and results in an outcome in the cell where the formula lives. A function is nothing other than a predefined formula. The good people who created Excel developed a whole bunch of functions that can do many different things, bUl throughout Statistics Jar People ... , we deal only with those that are relevam to the things we do in these chapters. Functions fall under the general Formulas tab on the ribbon, as you see in Figure lA.5. Figure 1A..'i F,le The Formulas Tab on the Excel Ribbon Home nmt Page l•yout Farmulos Data R~·1~, View Insert AutaSum Recently Finoncool Lag1cal T..i Dole & lookup & Math & More Function Used• • Tome• Reference• Trig Functions• Function Library y Part I • Yippee! I'm in Statistics 26 For example, there are groups of financial functions, logical functions, text functions, and others. But we're going to focus (mostly) on the functions that fa11 in the category of statistical functions and a few database functions. The group of statistical functions are visible on your screen only when you click on the More Functions dropdown box, which you see in Figure lA.5, and then click Statistical. The group of database functions must be the black sheep of Excel because they don't have their own grouping on the Excel Ribbon. Instead, you have to click the Insert Function button on the left of the ribbon and then specify the group of database functions. Functions that are relevant to the material covered in this book include AVERAGE (guess what that does) and T.TEST (guess, but you probably don't yet know). Some are too advanced for us to bother with, such as FISHER and GAMALIN. We'll leave those for the next course or for you to explore on your own. Using a Function Unlike a formula, a function is not created by you. You just tell it which values (located in which cells) you want to work with. Every formula contains two elementsthe name of the function and the argument of the function. A,:gumcnt doesn't mean the function is quarrelling over whose turn it is to wash the dishes. To understand what an Excel argument is, let's look at an example. Here's a very simple function that averages a given set of numbers. In this example, this function averages the numbers in Cells Al through A3: =AVERAGE(Al :A3) The name of the function is AVERAGE, and the a1gume11t is Al:A3the ce11s on which you want the function to perform its magic. And as you can see, functions (like formulas) always, always, always begin with an equal sign. Here's another function that produces the sum of a set of cells: =5UM(Al:A3) Simple, right? And, you may be thinking, "We11, why not just use a formula in this case?" and you could. But what if you need the sum of a set of 3,267 values like this? =SUM(Al:A3267) Chapter IA • All You Need to Know About Formulas and Functions 27 You really don't want to type in =(Al+A2+A3+A4 ... ) until you get to A3267, right? We thought not. Or what if you need a fancyschmancy calculation that includes formulas that are very complex? Functions to the rescue! So, let's get to the way that we use a function, and as an example, we'll use the AVERAGE function. To use this (or any other [unction), you follow three steps: 1. Enter the function in the cell where you want the results to appear. 2. Enter the range of cells on which you want the [unction to operate. 3. Press the Enter key, and voila! There you have the result located in the cell in which the function was created. However, there are several ways to accomplish these three steps, and let's deal with those now. Inserti11g a Function (\\,11en You K11ow die Function~ Name a11d How It Works) Here's the oldfashioned way. l. Enter the function in the cell where you want the results to appear. For example, in Figure lA.6, you can see a data set of 10 values. We are going to find the average of those values using the AVERAGE function. And, to make things a bit clearer, we entered a text label in the cell to the ldt of where we want the sum to appear. Figure 1A.6 Creating a Data Set and the Location of the AVERAGE Function A 1 2 3 4 s, B Value 3 4 2 3 6 4 7 , s :1 10 11 12 Average 4 3 2 3 I • Part I • Yippee! rm in Statistics 28 2. Type :::::AVERAGE(B2:Bll) in Cell Bl2. 3. Press the Enter key, and presto: As you see in Figure IA. 7, the sum shows up in Cell Bl2, and in the formula bar, you can see the structure of the function. Notice that the results of the function (3.3) are returned to the same cell (B12) where the function was entered. Pretty cool. And not very difficult. And very convenient. Remember that you can do this with any function. But how do you know what the structure of the function is? That's where the next step comes in. Figure 1 A.7 The Completed AVERAGE Function X 612 A 1 B C 2 0 ...L.. E _L 3 4 4 5 2 3 ~1l 9 =AVERAGE(62:811) Value 3 8 f,, ../ I 101 11, 12 Average 4 5 4 3 2 3 3.31 • Okay so how do you know what function to use? Well, certainly one way is through exploring different functions and finding out what they do (which you will do throughout Statistics for People ... ). Another is by using Excel Help (press F1 at any time and enter the terms on which you want help). And another way is to look at Table 1A.1 at the end of this little chapter, which gives you a headsup on which functions we'll be mentioning (some in great detail and others just in passing) throughout the book and what they do. Chapter IA • All You Need to Know About Formulas and Functions 29 Inserting a Fu11ctio11 Using the Insert Function (fx) Command Let's use the same example, the AVERAGE function, and assume you haven't used it before but know this is the one you want to use. We're using the same data as shown in Figure lA.6. First, erase the results of the function in Cell Bl2 by selecting the cell and hitting the space bar once and then Enter. L Select Cell Bl2. 2. Click the Formulas tab and the Insert Function command (Jx). When you do this, you will see the Insert Function dialog box as shown in Figure lA.8. In the Mac version, you see the Formula Builder dialog box, which does the same thing as the Insert Function dialog box in the Windows version. Figure 1 A.I! The Insert Function Dialog Box Insert Function X 7 Search for a function: ~~: ~~net desctTptton of w/lft_you .want.to.do:and.iiiiii1 ! Or s eled a sategary: statistlca I [ jI ~a v] Select a fundla.o: ·••..,••~.··.,_           'l " i...~ ....... AVERAGE AVERAGEA AVERAGEIF AVERAGEIFS BETA.DIST BETA.lNV y AVEDEV(number1,number2.> Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean. Arguments can be numbers or names, arrays, or references that contain numbers. Help on this fundion ..___o_K_! j Canul A very nice shortcut to the function command (Jx) can be found on the Formula bar just to the left of where you see any information that is entered into a cell. Just click that, and you get the Insert Function dialog box. ' ~ . ·. Part I • Yippee! I'm in Statistics 30 3. Now you can do one of two things: a. Type a brief description of what you want to do, such as average, and click the Go button; or b. Find the function you want in the list of functions and doubleclick on it. We selected option (b), and when we did, the Function arguments dialog box appeared, as shown in Figure lA.9. Notice that Excel automatically assumed that we wanted to average all of the values above the current cell, and it completed the cell range in the Number 1 box. Don't get too excited. A function's argument is not really an argument like a disagreement. An argument in mathematical terms is a set of premises, and that's exactly what you need to provide within the parentheses of any function a set of premises that the function is to carry out. Figure 1 A.9 The Function Arguments Dialog Box X 1 f'unction Arguments AVERAGE !;===========:::;;; B2:Bfil ~ j • {3;4;2;3;4;5;4;3;2;3} NurnberZ I I~! • numbrr N111nbef1 • 3.3 Rrlum1 the averave (arithmetic rnunl ol its arguments, which can be numbers or names, arrays, or references that contain numbers, Humbert: number1,numbcr2, . are 1 to 255 numcrit 1r11umcnts lor which you want the avcravc. Fomula result • 3.3 H•lp on thh lundion 0[ Cllnttl Let's take a look at the different elements in this dialog box. • There's the name of the function, AVERAGE. • Then there are text boxes where you enter the range of cells (the argument) on which you want the function to perform its Chapter lA + All You Need to Know About Formulas and Functions • • • • 31 duty. Note that Excel is pretty smart and automatically enters the range of cells it thinks you want to average. Notice also that the actual numbers you want to average are listed to the right of the text box. In the middle of the dialog box is a description of what the function docs, and above that is the value the function will return to the cell in which it is located (in this case, your average is 3.3). The syntax (or directions) of how to put the function together is given near the bottom, preceded by Number l. The formula result is shown again at the bottom left. Finally, there is a link to a place to get help if you need it. 4. Click OK, and you will see the same result as you saw in Figure IA. 7. We entered the function using the Insert Function command instead of by typing its name, but we got the same result. Inserting a Function Using Fornmlas ~ More Functions ~ Statistical That really says it a11. Just fo11ow these three mouse clicks, and you will see a list of a11 the statistical functions that are available. Selecting any of them (such as AVERAGE) provides you with the same dialog box you see in Figure lA.9. Most functions can do a lot more than first appears. Excel functions are so useful because they are so flexible. For example, with the simplest of functions such as SUM, you can enter the following variations as arguments and get the following results. I ! I If you enter the following formula ... I =SUM(3,4) I Excel does this ... Adds the values to get 7. =SUM(A2:A4) Adds the values located in Cells A2 through A4. =SUM(A2:A4,6) Adds the values located in Cells A2 through A4 and also adds the value of 6 to that sum. I=SUM(A6:A8,4) Adds the values located in Cells A6 to A8 and adds the value of 4 to that sum. lidll ~  Part I • Yippee! I'm in Statistics 32 Now you know two ways to insert a function in a worksheet by typing its name or selecting it through the Insert Function dialog box. And once a specific Function Arguments dialog box {like the one you see in Figure 1A. 9) is open, you can just enter the cell addresses in the appro· priate text box. However, you can also just click in the cell address box and then drag the mouse over the cell addresses you want to include in that box. This is good. But there's another nifty way to go about this. You can click on the Collapse button (which looks like this §!J ), which will shrink the entire dialog box and allow you to select the cells you want using the mouse directly on the worksheet. Then click the Expand button, and the dialog box returns to its normal size with the cell addresses included. If you insert a function by typing it directly into a cell (or even by typing a partial name), the 2016 version of Excel provides a Iist of similarly spelled functions as well as a tip about how to use your function, as you see in Figure 1A.10. Here we typed in =aver, and as we typed, Excel provided a list of various average functions plus a tip as to what the AVERAGE function does. Figure 1A.10 Excel Helps You Choose the Right Function 11 3 ii Aver.,se l: aved I Rdumi 1h .wfl'JC (11nt~ ,ncu,) of~ ttgurntffltr. IM\Kh un benumbf:rs Of Nmti. arr,yi. or rtfff'ffl(n th,H ccnt1,n num~ 13 (/;) 14 @AVlltAGEA lS 16 @M:R.lG!Jf rf.}AvtR.lG!lfS Using Functions in Formulas It's time to get a bit fancy. Now, formulas and functions are basically the same animalthey carry out instructions. There's just no reason why you can't include a function in a formula. For example, let's say that you have three job evaluation scores (Eval 1, Eval 2, and Eval 3) as you see in Figure lA.11. You also have a Fudge Factor (in column E) , which is a value you can use to increase or decrease an employee's score at your discretion. For example, you want to increase employee GH's score by 3%, so Chapter IA + All You Need to Know About Formulas and Functions 33 you multiply the average evaluation score (from Eval 1, Eval 2, and Eval 3) by 1.03. Figure lA.11 shows the formula that includes the AVERAGE function (which you will learn more about in Chapter 2). Using a Function in a Formula Figure 1A.11 • F2 ~ =AVERAGE( B2:D2) • E2 B C D E ...,_ _F_ __ _ 1 Name Eval 1 Eval 2 Eval 3 Fudge Factor Final Score 2 HY 3 TT 92 73 60 70 87 4 HG 5 YU 6 NE 7 GH 77 8 QJ 9 us 10 TN 11 OF t 96 93 85 67 76 70 70 67 64 74 69 84 77 64 90 80 77 67 71 67 99 83 100 77 _ 1.10, 1.02 1.04 1.09 1.07 1.03 1.03 1.10 1.04 1.09 94.60! 75.82 71.76 74.12 79.18 74.85 90.64 95.33 90.83 75.57 As you can see in the formula bar shown in Figure lA.11, the formula in Cell F2 looks like this: =AVERAGE(B2:D2)*E2 And it reads like this: The contents of Cells B2 through 02 are averaged, and then that value is multiplied by the contents of Cell E2. We copied the formula from Cell F2 to Cells F3 through Fll, and the results are shown in Column F. We're Taking Names: Naming Ranges It's certainly easy enough to enter cell addresses such as Al:A3 not much work involved there. But what if you're dealing with a really large worksheet with hundreds of columns and rows and thousands of cells? Wouldn't it be nice if you could just enter a name that represents a certain range of cells rather than having to remember all those cell addresses? Desire it no more. Excel allows you to name a range, or a collection of cells. Part I • Yippee! I'm in Statistics 34 For example, in Figure lA.11, if you want to average the employees' second evaluations, instead of using the cell addresses C2:Cll, why not just give the range of cells a name, such as eval2 or EVAL_ 2 (no spaces, please!)? Then, the average for that set of scores using the A