Child DevelopmentLaura E. Berk
A best-selling, topically organized child development text, Berk’s Child Development is relied on in classrooms worldwide for its clear, engaging writing style, exceptional cross-cultural and multi-cultural focus, rich examples, and long-standing commitment to presenting the most up-to-date scholarship while also offering students research-based, practical applications that they can relate to their personal and professional lives.
Berk takes an integrated approach to presenting development in the physical, cognitive, emotional, and social domains; emphasizes the complex interchanges between heredity and environment; and provides exceptional attention to culture.
Laura Berk, renowned professor and researcher, presents the latest theories and findings in the field to students in a manageable and relevant way. Berk’s signature storytelling style invites students to actively learn beside the text’s “characters,” who experience real issues in development, including physical, cognitive, and peer challenges, as well as parenting and educational concerns. Berk also helps students connect their learning to their personal and professional areas of interest. Her voice comes through when speaking directly about issues students will face in their future pursuits as parents, educators, heath care providers, social workers, and researchers. As members of a global and diverse human community, students are called on to intelligently approach the responsibility of understanding and responding to the needs and concerns of children.
While carefully considering the complexities of child development, Berk presents classic and emerging theories in an especially clear, engaging writing style, with a multitude of research-based, real-world, and cross-cultural examples. Strengthening the connections among developmental domains and among theory, research, and applications, this edition's extensive revision brings forth the most recent scholarship, representing the changing field of child development.
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Child Development This page intentionally left blank Child Development N I N T H E D I T I O N Laura E. Berk Illinois State University Boston • Columbus • Indianapolis • New York • San Francisco • Upper Saddle River Amsterdam • Cape Town • Dubai • London • Madrid • Milan • Munich • Paris • Montreal • Toronto Delhi • Mexico City • Sao Paulo • Sydney • Hong Kong • Seoul • Singapore • Taipei • Tokyo In loving memory of my parents, Sofie and Philip Eisenberg Editorial Director: Craig Campanella Editor in Chief: Jessica Mosher Managing Editor: Tom Pauken Supplements Editor: Sara Harris Development Editors: Judy Ashkenaz, Lisa McLellan Media Director: Brian Hyland Media Production Project Manager, Editorial: Peter Sabatini Media Editorial Project Manager, Production: Caitlin Smith Director of Marketing: Brandy Dawson Senior Marketing Manager: Wendy Albert Production Managing Editor: Maureen Richardson Senior Production Project Manager: Donna Simons Editorial Assistants: Amelia Benner, Rachel Trapp, Alexandra Mitton, Jennifer Nolan Senior Operations Specialist: Diane Peirano Art Director: Leslie Osher Interior Designer: Carol Somberg Cover Designer: Rachel Trapp, Berk Educational Texts, Normal, IL, and Wee Design Group/Wanda Espana Photo Researcher: Sarah Evertson—ImageQuest Production Project Editor: Jennifer Smyre Project Coordination and Editorial Services: Electronic Publishing Services Inc., NYC Art Rendering and Electronic Page Makup: Jouve Copyeditor: Margaret Pinette References Editor: William Heckman Proofreader: Julie Hotchkiss Supplements Project Management: LEAP Higher Education Printer/Binder and Cover Printer: Courier Corp., Kendallville, IN Text Font: Minion Cover Art: “Friendship,” 12 years, Indonesia. Courtesy of The International Museum of Children’s Art, Oslo, Norway Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006, 2003, 2000, 1997, 1994, 1991, 1989 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permissi; on should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Berk, Laura E. Child development / Laura E. Berk. — 9th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-205-14976-6 1. Child development. I. Title HQ767.9.B464 2012 305.231—dc23 2012003119 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Student Edition ISBN 10: 0-205-14976-6 ISBN 13: 978-0-205-14976-6 Instructor’s Review Edition ISBN 10: 0-205-14977-4 ISBN 13: 978-0-205-14977-3 Á la Carte ISBN 10: 0-205-85435-4 ISBN 13: 978-0-205-85435-6 About the Author Laura E. Berk is a distinguished professor of psychology at Illinois State University, where she has taught child and human development to both undergraduate and graduate students for more than three decades. She received her bachelor’s degree in psychology from the University of California, Berkeley, and her master’s and doctoral degrees in child development and educational psychology from the University of Chicago. She has been a visiting scholar at Cornell University, UCLA, Stanford University, and the University of South Australia. Berk has published widely on the effects of school environments on children’s development, the development of private speech, and recently, the role of make-believe play in development. Her research has been funded by the U.S. Office of Education and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. It has appeared in many prominent journals, including Child Development, Developmental Psychology, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Development and Psychopathology, and Early Childhood Research Quarterly. Her empirical studies have attracted the attention of the general public, leading to contributions to Psychology Today and Scientific American. She has also been featured on National Public Radio’s Morning Edition and in Parents Magazine, Wondertime, and Reader’s Digest. Berk has served as research editor of Young Children and consulting editor of Early Childhood Research Quarterly. Currently, she is associate editor of the Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology. She is a frequent contributor to edited volumes on early childhood development, having recently authored chapters on the importance of parenting, on make-believe play and self-regulation, and on the kindergarten child. She has also written the chapter on development for The Many Faces of Psychological Research in the Twenty-First Century (Society for the Teaching of Psychology); the article on social development for The Child: An Encyclopedic Companion; the article on Vygotsky for the Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science; and the chapter on storytelling as a teaching strategy for Voices of Experience: Memorable Talks from the National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology (Association for Psychological Science). Berk’s books include Private Speech: From Social Interaction to Self-Regulation; Scaffolding Children’s Learning: Vygotsky and Early Childhood Education; Landscapes of Development: An Anthology of Readings; and A Mandate for Playful Learning in Preschool: Presenting the Evidence. In addition to Child Development, she is author of the best-selling texts Infants, Children, and Adolescents; Development Through the Lifespan; and Exploring Lifespan Development, published by Pearson. Her book for parents and teachers is Awakening Children’s Minds: How Parents and Teachers Can Make a Difference. Berk is active in work for children’s causes. In addition to service in her home community, she is a member of the national board of directors and chair of the Chicago advisory board of Jumpstart, a nonprofit organization that provides intensive literacy intervention to thousands of low-income preschoolers across the United States, using college and university students as interveners. Berk is a fellow of the American Psychological Association, Division 7: Developmental Psychology. Brief Contents I THEORY AND RESEARCH IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT 1 History, Theory, and Applied Directions 2 Research Strategies 40 II 2 FOUNDATIONS OF DEVELOPMENT 3 Biological Foundations, Prenatal Development, and Birth 72 4 Infancy: Early Learning, Motor Skills, and Perceptual Capacities 5 Physical Growth 174 III 128 COGNITIVE AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 6 Cognitive Development: Piagetian, Core Knowledge, and Vygotskian Perspectives 224 7 Cognitive Development: An Information-Processing Perspective 276 8 Intelligence 318 9 Language Development 358 IV PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 10 11 12 13 Emotional Development 400 Self and Social Understanding 446 Moral Development 484 Development of Sex Differences and Gender Roles V CONTEXTS FOR DEVELOPMENT 14 The Family 566 15 Peers, Media, and Schooling iv 606 528 Features at a Glance BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Sweden’s Commitment to Gender Equality 536 The African-American Extended Family 583 Development of Civic Responsibility 508 Resilient Children 10 Prenatal Iron Deficiency and Memory Impairments in Infants of Diabetic Mothers: Findings of ERP Research 49 A Case of Epigenesis: Smoking During Pregnancy Alters Gene Expression 125 “Tuning In” to Familiar Speech, Faces, and Music: A Sensitive Period for Culture-Specific Learning 156 Two Approaches to Bilingual Education: Canada and the United States 397 SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH Children Learn About Gender Through Mother–Child Conversations 540 Family Chaos Undermines Children’s Well-Being 29 Teaching Children to Challenge Peers’ Sexist Remarks 545 Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Child Development 36 School Recess—A Time to Play, a Time to Learn 639 Children’s Research Risks: Developmental and Individual Differences 68 Magnet Schools: Equal Access to High-Quality Education 645 Brain Plasticity: Insights from Research on Brain-Damaged Children and Adults 188 The Pros and Cons of Reproductive Technologies 86 Low-Level Lead Exposure and Children’s Development 193 A Cross-National Perspective on Health Care and Other Policies for Parents and Newborn Babies 118 Do’s and Don’ts for a Healthy Pregnancy 107 The Mysterious Tragedy of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome 136 Reasons to Breastfeed 195 Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 290 Infantile Amnesia 301 Deaf Children Invent Language 362 Language Development in Children with Williams Syndrome 366 Parental Depression and Child Development 404 Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth: Coming Out to Oneself and Others 216 Does Child Care Threaten Infant Attachment Security and Later Adjustment? 442 Development of Shyness and Sociability 422 Adolescent Suicide: Annihilation of the Self 472 “Mindblindness” and Autism 457 The Transition to Parenthood 570 Two Routes to Adolescent Delinquency 520 Child Sexual Abuse 601 Sex Differences in Spatial Abilities 556 Adolescent Substance Use and Abuse 626 Does Parenting Really Matter? 578 Bullies and Their Victims 621 CULTURAL INFLUENCES SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION Can Musical Experiences Enhance Intelligence? 59 !Kung Infancy: Acquiring Culture 26 Development of Infants with Severe Visual Impairments 162 Immigrant Youths: Adapting to a New Land 53 Sex Differences in Gross-Motor Development 180 Cultural Variation in Infant Sleeping Arrangements 134 Baby Learning from TV and Video: The Video Deficit Effect 237 Social Origins of Make-Believe Play 270 Speech–Gesture Mismatches: Using the Hand to Read the Mind 285 Children in Village and Tribal Cultures Observe and Participate in Adult Work 273 The Powerful Role of Paternal Warmth in Development 439 Cultural Variations in Personal Storytelling: Implications for Early Self-Concept 451 Identity Development among Ethnic Minority Adolescents 475 Ethnic Differences in the Consequences of Physical Punishment 493 Impact of Ethnic and Political Violence on Children 524 APPLYING WHAT WE KNOW Soothing a Crying Baby 137 Communicating with Adolescents About Sexual Issues 213 Enhancing Make-Believe Play in Early Childhood 241 Handling Consequences of Teenagers’ New Cognitive Capacities 255 Promoting Children’s Cognitive SelfRegulation 305 Supporting Emergent Literacy in Early Childhood 309 Features of a High-Quality Home Life in Infancy and Toddlerhood, Early Childhood, and Middle Childhood: The HOME Subscales 344 Promoting Children’s Creativity 355 Supporting Early Language Learning 373 Helping Children Manage Common Fears of Early Childhood 411 Signs of Developmentally Appropriate Infant and Toddler Child Care 443 Fostering a Mastery-Oriented Approach to Learning 468 Media Multitasking Disrupts Learning 293 Supporting Healthy Identity Development 474 Emotional Intelligence 327 Positive Parenting 495 High-Stakes Testing 343 Reducing Children’s Gender Stereotyping and Gender-Role Conformity 563 The Head Start REDI Program: Strengthening School Readiness in Economically Disadvantaged Preschoolers 351 Parent–Child Interaction: Impact on Language and Cognitive Development of Deaf Children 372 Helping Children Adjust to Their Parents’ Divorce 594 Signs of Developmentally Appropriate Early Childhood Programs 598 Regulating TV, Computer, and Cell Phone Use 636 v Contents A Personal Note to Students Preface for Instructors xiv xiii CHAPTER 2 Research Strategies P A R T I Theory and Research in Child Development CHAPTER History, Theory, and Applied Directions The Field of Child Development 4 Domains of Development 4 Periods of Development 5 Continuous or Discontinuous Development? 7 One Course of Development or Many? 8 Relative Influence of Nature and Nurture? 8 A Balanced Point of View 9 Reliability 54 Validity 54 General Research Designs 55 10 Correlational Design 55 Experimental Design 56 Modified Experimental Designs 12 The Psychoanalytic Perspective 15 Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory 17 Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory 19 Designs for Studying Development 60 The Longitudinal Design 60 The Cross-Sectional Design 62 Improving Developmental Designs Recent Theoretical Perspectives 21 Information Processing 21 Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience 23 Ethology and Evolutionary Developmental Psychology 23 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory 24 CULTURAL INFLUENCES !Kung Infancy: Acquiring Culture Ecological Systems Theory 26 26 SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH Family Chaos Undermines Children’s Well-Being 29 New Directions: Development as a Dynamic System 30 Comparing Child Development Theories 31 Applied Directions: Child Development and Social Policy 32 Culture and Public Policies 34 Contributions of Child Development Research 58 SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION Can Musical Experiences Enhance Intelligence? 59 Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories 14 35 SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Child Development 36 Looking Toward the Future 37 Summary 38 Important Terms and Concepts 39 BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Prenatal Iron Deficiency and Memory Impairments in Infants of Diabetic Mothers: Findings of ERP Research 49 The Clinical, or Case Study, Method 50 Methods for Studying Culture 51 Reliability and Validity: Keys to Scientifically Sound Research 54 BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Resilient Children 10 Medieval Times 10 The Reformation 11 Philosophies of the Enlightenment Scientific Beginnings 13 2 46 CULTURAL INFLUENCES Immigrant Youths: Adapting to a New Land 53 Basic Issues 6 vi From Theory to Hypothesis 41 Common Research Methods 42 Systematic Observation 42 Self-Reports: Interviews and Questionnaires Neurobiological Methods 47 1 Historical Foundations 40 63 Ethics in Research on Children 66 SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH Children’s Research Risks: Developmental and Individual Differences 68 Summary 70 Important Terms and Concepts 71 P A R T I I Foundations of Development CHAPTER 3 Biological Foundations, Prenatal Development, and Birth 72 Genetic Foundations 73 The Genetic Code 74 The Sex Cells 75 Boy or Girl? 76 CONTENTS Multiple Offspring 76 Patterns of Genetic Inheritance 77 Chromosomal Abnormalities 82 Neonatal Behavioral Assessment 138 Learning Capacities 139 Motor Development in Infancy 147 Reproductive Choices 84 Genetic Counseling 84 Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Medicine 84 SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH The Pros and Cons of Reproductive Technologies 86 BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT “Tuning In” to Familiar Speech, Faces, and Music: A Sensitive Period for Culture-Specific Learning 156 MILESTONES Development of Touch, Taste, Smell, and Hearing 158 Vision 158 94 103 Childbirth 107 The Baby’s Adaptation to Labor and Delivery 108 The Newborn Baby’s Appearance 109 Assessing the Newborn’s Physical Condition: The Apgar Scale 109 Approaches to Childbirth 109 Natural, or Prepared, Childbirth 110 Home Delivery 111 Labor and Delivery Medication 112 Birth Complications 112 Oxygen Deprivation 112 Preterm and Low-Birth-Weight Infants 113 Birth Complications, Parenting, and Resilience 117 Heredity, Environment, and Behavior: A Look Ahead 118 120 BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT A Case of Epigenesis: Smoking During Pregnancy Alters Gene Expression 125 Summary 126 Important Terms and Concepts 127 CHAPTER SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION Development of Infants with Severe Visual Impairments 162 Intermodal Perception 166 MILESTONES Visual Development in Infancy 167 Understanding Perceptual Development 168 Early Deprivation and Enrichment: Is Infancy a Sensitive Period of Development? 169 Summary 172 Important Terms and Concepts 173 CHAPTER SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH A Cross-National Perspective on Health Care and Other Policies for Parents and Newborn Babies 118 The Question, “How Much?” The Question, “How?” 121 152 Touch 153 Taste and Smell 154 Hearing 155 Conception 88 Period of the Zygote 89 MILESTONES Prenatal Development 90 Period of the Embryo 91 Period of the Fetus 92 Teratogens 95 Other Maternal Factors The Sequence of Motor Development 147 MILESTONES Some Gross- and Fine-Motor Attainments of the First Two Years 148 Motor Skills as Dynamic Systems 148 Fine-Motor Development: Reaching and Grasping 150 Perceptual Development in Infancy Prenatal Development 88 Prenatal Environmental Influences vii 4 5 Physical Growth 174 The Course of Physical Growth 176 Changes in Body Size 176 Changes in Body Proportions 176 Changes in Muscle–Fat Makeup 177 Skeletal Growth 178 Gains in Gross-Motor Skills 178 MILESTONES Gross-Motor Development in Early and Middle Childhood 179 SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION Sex Differences in Gross-Motor Development 180 Hormonal Influences on Physical Growth 181 Worldwide Variations in Body Size 183 Secular Trends 184 Infancy: Early Learning, Motor Skills, and Perceptual Capacities 128 Brain Development 184 The Organized Infant 129 BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Brain Plasticity: Insights from Research on Brain-Damaged Children and Adults 188 Advances in Other Brain Structures 189 Brain Development in Adolescence 190 Sensitive Periods in Brain Development 191 Reflexes 130 States 132 CULTURAL INFLUENCES Cultural Variation in Infant Sleeping Arrangements 134 SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH The Mysterious Tragedy of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome 136 Development of Neurons 185 Development of the Cerebral Cortex 186 Factors Affecting Physical Growth 192 Heredity 192 viii CONTENTS BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Low-Level Lead Exposure and Children’s Development 193 Nutrition 194 Infectious Disease 201 Emotional Well-Being 202 Puberty: The Physical Transition to Adulthood MILESTONES Some Cognitive Attainments of Early Childhood 248 Evaluation of the Preoperational Stage 248 The Concrete Operational Stage: 7 to 11 Years 203 Sexual Maturation in Girls 203 Sexual Maturation in Boys 203 MILESTONES Pubertal Development in North American Boys and Girls 204 Individual and Group Differences in Pubertal Growth 204 The Psychological Impact of Pubertal Events 205 Is Puberty Inevitably a Period of Storm and Stress? 205 Reactions to Pubertal Changes 206 Pubertal Change, Emotion, and Social Behavior 207 Pubertal Timing 208 260 The Core Knowledge Perspective 261 Infancy: Physical and Numerical Knowledge 262 Children as Naïve Theorists 264 Evaluation of the Core Knowledge Perspective 265 SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths: Coming Out to Oneself and Others 216 Sexually Transmitted Disease 217 Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenthood 217 A Concluding Note 221 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory 266 Children’s Private Speech 266 Social Origins of Cognitive Development 267 Vygotsky’s View of Make-Believe Play 269 Summary 221 Important Terms and Concepts 223 Vygotsky and Education 269 CULTURAL INFLUENCES Social Origins of Make-Believe Play Reciprocal Teaching 271 Cooperative Learning 271 I I I Cognitive and Language Development CHAPTER Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning 253 Propositional Thought 254 Consequences of Adolescent Cognitive Changes 255 Follow-up Research on Formal Operational Thought 257 Is Piaget’s Account of Cognitive Change Clear and Accurate? 260 Does Cognitive Development Take Place in Stages? 260 Piaget’s Legacy 261 210 P A R T The Formal Operational Stage: 11 Years and Older 253 Piaget and Education 259 Overall Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory Puberty and Adolescent Health 210 Eating Disorders Sexuality 212 249 Concrete Operational Thought 249 Limitations of Concrete Operational Thought 252 Follow-Up Research on Concrete Operational Thought 252 MILESTONES Some Cognitive Attainments of Middle Childhood and Adolescence 253 Evaluation of Vygotsky’s Theory 272 CULTURAL INFLUENCES Children in Village and Tribal Cultures Observe and Participate in Adult Work 273 6 Summary 273 Important Terms and Concepts 275 Cognitive Development: Piagetian, Core Knowledge, and Vygotskian Perspectives 224 CHAPTER 7 Cognitive Development: An InformationProcessing Perspective 276 Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory 226 Basic Characteristics of Piaget’s Stages 226 Piaget’s Ideas About Cognitive Change 226 The Information-Processing Approach 278 A General Model of Information Processing 278 The Sensorimotor Stage: Birth to 2 Years 228 Sensorimotor Development 228 Follow-Up Research on Infant Cognitive Development Evaluation of the Sensorimotor Stage 236 230 SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION Baby Learning from TV and Video: The Video Deficit Effect 237 MILESTONES Some Cognitive Attainments of Infancy and Toddlerhood 238 The Preoperational Stage: 2 to 7 Years 239 Advances in Mental Representation 239 Limitations of Preoperational Thought 243 Follow-Up Research on Preoperational Thought 270 Components of the Mental System 278 Implications for Development 280 Developmental Theories of Information Processing 282 Case’s Neo-Piagetian Theory 283 Siegler’s Model of Strategy Choice 284 SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION Speech–Gesture Mismatches: Using the Hand to Read the Mind 285 Attention 245 286 Sustained, Selective, and Adaptable Attention 286 Planning 289 CONTENTS BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 290 Memory 292 Strategies for Storing Information Early Intervention and Intellectual Development 347 Benefits of Early Intervention 347 Strengthening Early Intervention 349 Giftedness: Creativity and Talent The Psychometric View BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Infantile Amnesia 301 306 Summary 356 Important Terms and Concepts 357 Applications of Information Processing to Academic Learning 307 Reading 307 Mathematics 310 Scientific Reasoning CHAPTER 313 Evaluation of the Information-Processing Approach 314 Summary 316 Important Terms and Concepts 317 CHAPTER 8 Intelligence 318 9 Language Development 358 Components of Language 360 Theories of Language Development 360 The Nativist Perspective 360 BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Deaf Children Invent Language 362 BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Language Development in Children with Williams Syndrome 366 The Interactionist Perspective 366 Definitions of Intelligence 320 Alfred Binet: A Holistic View 320 The Factor Analysts: A Multifaceted View 350 350 SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION The Head Start REDI Program: Strengthening School Readiness in Economically Disadvantaged Preschoolers 351 A Multifaceted View 352 303 Metacognitive Knowledge 303 Cognitive Self-Regulation 304 MILESTONES Development of Information Processing 339 SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION High-Stakes Testing 343 Home Environment and Mental Development 344 292 SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION Media Multitasking Disrupts Learning 293 Retrieving Information 294 Knowledge and Semantic Memory 296 Episodic Memory 297 Eyewitness Memory 300 Metacognition Race and Ethnicity: Genetic or Cultural Groupings? Cultural Bias in Testing 339 Reducing Cultural Bias in Testing 342 ix Prelinguistic Development: Getting Ready to Talk 321 Recent Advances in Defining Intelligence 323 Combining Psychometric and Information-Processing Approaches 323 Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory 323 Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences 325 SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION Parent–Child Interaction: Impact on Language and Cognitive Development of Deaf Children 372 Phonological Development 373 Measuring Intelligence 326 The Early Phase 373 Phonological Strategies 374 Later Phonological Development 375 SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION Emotional Intelligence 327 Some Commonly Used Intelligence Tests 327 Aptitude and Achievement Tests 328 Tests for Infants 329 Computation and Distribution of IQ Scores 330 Semantic Development 376 What Do Intelligence Tests Predict, and How Well? 330 Stability of IQ Scores 330 IQ as a Predictor of Academic Achievement 331 IQ as a Predictor of Occupational Attainment 332 IQ as a Predictor of Psychological Adjustment 333 Ethnic and Socioeconomic Variations in IQ 334 Explaining Individual and Group Differences in IQ 368 Receptivity to Language 368 First Speech Sounds 370 Becoming a Communicator 370 The Early Phase 376 Later Semantic Development 380 Ideas About How Semantic Development Takes Place 381 Grammatical Development 384 335 Genetic Influences 335 Adoption Studies: Joint Influence of Heredity and Environment 337 CULTURAL INFLUENCES The Flynn Effect: Massive Generational Gains in IQ 338 First Word Combinations 384 From Simple Sentences to Complex Grammar 385 Development of Complex Grammatical Forms 387 Later Grammatical Development 388 Ideas About How Grammatical Development Takes Place Pragmatic Development 390 Acquiring Conversational Skills 390 Communicating Clearly 391 Narratives 392 Sociolinguistic Understanding 393 388 x CONTENTS Development of Metalinguistic Awareness 394 Bilingualism: Learning Two Languages in Childhood MILESTONES Attachment, Parental Employment, and Child Care 394 Language Development 395 SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH Does Child Care Threaten Infant Attachment Security and Later Adjustment? 442 SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION Two Approaches to Bilingual Education: Canada and the United States 397 Summary 444 Important Terms and Concepts 445 Summary 398 Important Terms and Concepts 399 CHAPTER P A R T I V Personality and Social Development CHAPTER 10 Emotional Development 400 Functions of Emotions 401 Emotions and Cognitive Processing 402 Emotions and Social Behavior 402 Emotions and Health 403 BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Parental Depression and Child Development 404 Other Features of the Functionalist Approach 405 Development of Emotional Expression 405 Basic Emotions 406 Self-Conscious Emotions 408 Emotional Self-Regulation 409 Acquiring Emotional Display Rules 412 Understanding and Responding to the Emotions of Others 414 Social Referencing 414 Emotional Understanding in Childhood 415 Empathy and Sympathy 416 MILESTONES Emotional Development 417 Temperament and Development 418 The Structure of Temperament 420 Measuring Temperament 421 BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Development of Shyness and Sociability 422 Stability of Temperament 423 Genetic and Environmental Influences 423 Temperament as a Predictor of Children’s Behavior 425 Temperament and Child Rearing: The Goodness-of-Fit Model 426 Development of Attachment 428 Bowlby’s Ethological Theory 428 Measuring the Security of Attachment 430 Stability of Attachment 432 Cultural Variations 432 Factors Affecting Attachment Security 433 Multiple Attachments 437 CULTURAL INFLUENCES The Powerful Role of Paternal Warmth in Development 439 Attachment and Later Development 439 441 11 Self and Social Understanding 446 Emergence of Self and Development of Self-Concept 448 Self-Awareness 448 The Categorical, Remembered, and Enduring Selves 450 CULTURAL INFLUENCES Cultural Variations in Personal Storytelling: Implications for Early Self-Concept 451 The Inner Self: Young Children’s Theory of Mind 451 Self-Concept 456 BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT “Mindblindness” and Autism 457 Cognitive, Social, and Cultural Influences on Self-Concept 459 MILESTONES Emergence of Self and Development of Self-Concept 460 Self-Esteem: The Evaluative Side of Self-Concept 461 The Structure of Self-Esteem 461 Changes in Level of Self-Esteem: The Role of Social Comparisons 462 Influences on Self-Esteem 463 Achievement-Related Attributions 464 Constructing an Identity: Who Should I Become? 468 MILESTONES Development of Self-Esteem 469 Paths to Identity 470 Identity Status and Psychological Well-Being 471 SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH Adolescent Suicide: Annihilation of the Self 472 Factors Affecting Identity Development 472 CULTURAL INFLUENCES Identity Development Among Ethnic Minority Adolescents 475 Thinking About Other People 476 Understanding People as Personalities 476 Understanding Social Groups: Race and Ethnicity 476 Understanding Conflict: Social Problem Solving The Social Problem-Solving Process 480 Enhancing Social Problem Solving 481 Summary 482 Important Terms and Concepts 483 CHAPTER 12 Moral Development 484 Morality as Rooted in Human Nature 486 Morality as the Adoption of Societal Norms Psychoanalytic Theory and the Role of Guilt Social Learning Theory 490 488 488 480 CONTENTS CULTURAL INFLUENCES Ethnic Differences in the Consequences of Physical Punishment 493 Limitations of “Morality as the Adoption of Societal Norms” Perspective 494 CULTURAL INFLUENCES Sweden’s Commitment to Gender Equality 536 Environmental Influences 538 SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION Children Learn About Gender Through Mother–Child Conversations 540 Morality as Social Understanding 496 SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION Teaching Children to Challenge Peers’ Sexist Remarks 545 Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development 496 Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory 497 Kohlberg’s Extension of Piaget’s Theory 499 Research on Kohlberg’s Stages 502 Are There Sex Differences in Moral Reasoning? 503 Influences on Moral Reasoning 504 Moral Reasoning and Behavior 506 Religious Involvement and Moral Development 507 Gender Identity 547 SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION Development of Civic Responsibility 508 Further Challenges to Kohlberg’s Theory 509 The Domain Approach to Moral Understanding 510 MILESTONES Internalization of Moral Norms and Development of Moral Understanding 513 Development of Morally Relevant Self-Control 514 Toddlerhood 514 Childhood and Adolescence 515 Individual Differences 516 Emergence of Gender Identity 548 Gender Identity in Middle Childhood Gender Identity in Adolescence 550 Gender Schema Theory 551 MILESTONES Gender Typing 553 549 To What Extent Do Boys and Girls Really Differ in Gender-Stereotyped Attributes? 553 Mental Abilities 554 BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Sex Differences in Spatial Abilities 556 Personality Traits 558 Developing Non-Gender-Stereotyped Children 562 Summary 564 Important Terms and Concepts 565 The Other Side of Self-Control: Development of Aggression 516 MILESTONES Development of Morally Relevant Self-Control and Aggression 517 Emergence of Aggression 517 Aggression in Early and Middle Childhood 518 Aggression and Delinquency in Adolescence 518 Stability of Aggression 519 P A R T V Contexts for Development BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Two Routes to Adolescent Delinquency 520 The Family as Training Ground for Aggressive Behavior 520 Social-Cognitive Deficits and Distortions 522 Community and Cultural Influences 523 Helping Children and Parents Control Aggression 523 CULTURAL INFLUENCES Impact of Ethnic and Political Violence on Children 524 CHAPTER 14 The Family 566 Origins and Functions of the Family 568 The Family as a Social System 569 Direct Influences 569 Indirect Influences 569 SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH The Transition to Parenthood Adapting to Change 571 The Family System in Context 571 Summary 526 Important Terms and Concepts 527 Socialization Within the Family CHAPTER xi 13 570 573 Styles of Child Rearing 573 What Makes the Authoritative Style Effective? 575 Adapting Child Rearing to Children’s Development 577 Development of Sex Differences and Gender Roles 528 BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Does Parenting Really Matter? 578 Socioeconomic and Ethnic Variations in Child Rearing 580 Gender Stereotypes and Gender Roles 530 CULTURAL INFLUENCES The African-American Extended Family Gender Stereotyping in Early Childhood 531 Gender Stereotyping in Middle Childhood and Adolescence 532 Individual and Group Differences in Gender Stereotyping Gender Stereotyping and Gender-Role Adoption 534 Influences on Gender Stereotyping and Gender-Role Adoption 535 Biological Influences 535 Family Lifestyles and Transitions 584 533 From Large to Small Families 584 One-Child Families 587 Adoptive Families 588 Gay and Lesbian Families 589 Never-Married Single-Parent Families Divorce 590 Blended Families 594 590 583 xii CONTENTS Maternal Employment and Dual-Earner Families Child Care 596 Self-Care 597 595 Media Vulnerable Families: Child Maltreatment 599 Incidence and Definitions 599 Origins of Child Maltreatment 600 Schooling 637 Class and Student Body Size 637 Educational Philosophies 638 SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH Child Sexual Abuse 601 Consequences of Child Maltreatment 602 Preventing Child Maltreatment 603 SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION School Recess—A Time to Play, a Time to Learn 639 School Transitions 640 Teacher–Student Interaction 643 Grouping Practices 643 Summary 604 Important Terms and Concepts 605 CHAPTER SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION Magnet Schools: Equal Access to High-Quality Education 645 Teaching Students with Special Needs 646 Parent–School Partnerships 647 How Well-Educated Are American Young People? 647 15 Peers, Media, and Schooling 606 Peer Relations 607 Summary 650 Important Terms and Concepts 652 Development of Peer Sociability 608 Influences on Peer Sociability 611 Friendship 613 Peer Acceptance 618 BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Bullies and Their Victims 621 Peer Groups 622 Dating 624 Peer Pressure and Conformity 625 SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH Adolescent Substance Use and Abuse MILESTONES 629 Television 629 Computers, Cell Phones, and the Internet 632 Regulating Media Use 635 Development of Peer Relations 628 626 Glossary G-1 References R-1 Name Index NI-1 Subject Index SI-1 A Personal Note to Students My more than 30 years of teaching child development have brought me in contact with thousands of students like you—students with diverse majors, future goals, interests, and needs. Some are affiliated with my own field, psychology, but many come from other related fields—education, sociology, anthropology, family studies, social service, nursing, and biology, to name just a few. Each semester, my students’ aspirations have proven to be as varied as their fields of study. Many look toward careers in applied work with children—teaching, caregiving, nursing, counseling, social service, school psychology, and program administration. Some plan to teach child development, and a few want to do research. Most hope someday to become parents, whereas others are already parents who come with a desire to better understand and rear their children. And almost all arrive with a deep curiosity about how they themselves developed from tiny infants into the complex human beings they are today. My goal in preparing this ninth edition of Child Development is to provide a textbook that meets the instructional goals of your course as well as your personal interests and needs. To achieve these objectives, I have grounded this book in a carefully selected body of classic and current theory and research brought to life with stories and vignettes about children and families, most of whom I have known personally. In addition, the text highlights the joint contributions of biology and environment to the developing child, explains how the research process helps solve real-world problems, illustrates commonalities and differences between ethnic groups and cultures, discusses the broader social contexts in which children develop, and pays special attention to policy issues that are crucial for safeguarding children’s well-being in today’s world. Woven throughout the text is a unique pedagogical program that will assist you in mastering information, integrating the various aspects of development, critically examining controversial issues, applying what you have learned, and relating the information to real life. I hope that learning about child development will be as rewarding for you as I have found it over the years. I would like to know what you think about both the field of child development and this book. I welcome your comments; please feel free to send them to me at Department of Psychology, Box 4620, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790, or in care of the publisher, who will forward them to me. Laura E. Berk xiii Preface for Instructors My decision to write Child Development was inspired by a wealth of professional and personal experiences. First and foremost were the interests and needs of thousands of students of child development in my classes in more than three decades of college teaching. I aimed for a text that is intellectually stimulating, that provides depth as well as breadth of coverage, that portrays the complexities of child development with clarity and excitement, and that is relevant and useful in building a bridge from theory and research to children’s everyday lives. Today, Child Development reaches around the globe, with editions published in six languages: English, Chinese, Georgian, Japanese, Russian, and Spanish. Instructor and student enthusiasm for the book not only has been among my greatest sources of pride and satisfaction but also has inspired me to rethink and improve each edition. I am honored and humbled to have entrusted to me the awesome responsibility of introducing the field of child development to so many students. The 23 years since Child Development first appeared have been a period of unprecedented expansion and change in theory and research. This ninth edition represents these rapid transformations, with a wealth of new content and teaching tools: ■ Diverse pathways of change are highlighted. Investigators have reached broad consensus that variations in biological makeup, everyday tasks, and the people who support children in mastery of those tasks lead to wide individual differences in children’s paths of change and resulting competencies. This edition pays more attention to variability in development and to recent theories—including ecological, sociocultural, and dynamic systems—that attempt to explain it. Multicultural and crosscultural findings, including international comparisons, are enhanced throughout the text and in revised and expanded Cultural Influences boxes. ■ The complex, bidirectional relationship between biology and environment is given greater attention. Accumulating evidence on development of the brain, motor skills, cognitive and language competencies, temperament, emotional and social understanding, and developmental problems underscores the way biological factors emerge in, are modified by, and share power with experience. The interconnection between biology and environment is revisited throughout the text narrative and in the Biology and Environment boxes with new and updated topics. ■ Inclusion of interdisciplinary research is expanded. The move toward viewing thoughts, feelings, and behavior as an integrated whole, affected by a wide array of influences in biology, social context, and culture, has motivated developmental researchers to strengthen their ties with other fields of psychology and with other disciplines. Topics and findings included in this edition increasingly reflect the contributions of educational psychology, social psychology, health psychology, clinical psychology, neurobiology, pediatrics, sociology, anthropology, social service, and other fields. xiv ■ The links among theory, research, and applications—a theme of this book since its inception—are strengthened. As researchers intensify their efforts to generate findings relevant to real-life situations, I have placed even greater weight on social policy issues and sound theory- and research-based practices. Further applications are provided in the Applying What We Know tables, which give students concrete ways of building bridges between their learning and the real world. ■ Both health and education are granted increased attention. The home, school, community, and larger culture are featured as contexts that powerfully influence children’s health and education, with lifelong consequences for their well-being. Research on effective health- and education-related policies and practices appears throughout the text narrative and in new and revised Social Issues: Health and Social Issues: Education boxes. ■ The role of active student learning is made more explicit. TAKE A MOMENT..., a feature built into the chapter narrative, asks students to think deeply and critically as they read. Ask Yourself questions at the end of each major section have been thoroughly revised and expanded to promote four approaches to engaging actively with the subject matter: Review, Connect, Apply, and Reflect. This feature assists students in reflecting on what they have learned from multiple vantage points. A new Look and Listen feature, appearing periodically in the margins, presents students with opportunities to observe what real children say and do and attend to influences on children in their everyday environments. Text Philosophy The basic approach of this book has been shaped by my own professional and personal history as a teacher, researcher, and parent. It consists of seven philosophical ingredients that I regard as essential for students to emerge from a course with a thorough understanding of child development: 1. An understanding of major theories and the strengths and shortcomings of each. The first chapter begins by emphasizing that only knowledge of multiple theories can do justice to the richness of child development. In each topical domain, I present a variety of theoretical perspectives, indicate how each highlights previously overlooked facets of development, and discuss research that evaluates it. If one or two theories have emerged as especially prominent in a particular area, I indicate why, in terms of the theory’s broad explanatory power. Consideration of contrasting theories also serves as the basis for an evenhanded analysis of many controversial issues throughout the text. 2. An appreciation of research strategies for investigating child development. To evaluate theories, students need a firm grounding in research methods and designs. I devote an entire chapter PREFACE to a description and critique of research strategies. Throughout the book, numerous studies are discussed in sufficient detail for students to use what they have learned to critically assess the findings, conclusions, and implications of research. 3. Knowledge of both the sequence of child development and the processes that underlie it. Students are provided with a description of the organized sequence of development along with processes of change. An understanding of process—how complex combinations of biological and environmental events produce development—has been the focus of most recent research. Accordingly, the text reflects this emphasis. But new information about the timetable of change has also emerged. In many ways, children have proved to be far more competent than they were believed to be in the past. Current evidence on the sequence and timing of development, along with its implications for process, is presented throughout the book. 4. An appreciation of the impact of context and culture on child development. A wealth of research indicates that children live in rich physical and social contexts that affect all aspects of development. In each chapter, the student travels to distant parts of the world as I review a growing body of cross-cultural evidence. The text narrative also discusses many findings on socioeconomically and ethnically diverse children within the United States and on children with varying abilities and disabilities. Besides highlighting the role of immediate settings, such as family, neighborhood, and school, I underscore the impact of larger social structures—societal values, laws, and government programs—on children’s well-being. 5. An understanding of the joint contributions of biology and environment to development. The field recognizes more powerfully than ever before the joint impact of hereditary/constitutional and environmental factors—that these contributions to development combine in complex ways and cannot be separated in a simple manner. Numerous examples of how biological dispositions can be maintained as well as transformed by social contexts are presented throughout the book. 6. A sense of the interdependency of all aspects of development— physical, cognitive, emotional, and social. Every chapter takes an integrated approach to understanding children. I show how physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development are interwoven. Within the text narrative and in a special series of Ask Yourself Connect questions at the end of major sections, students are referred to other parts of the book to deepen their grasp of relationships among various aspects of change. 7. An appreciation of the interrelatedness of theory, research, and applications. Throughout this book, I emphasize that theories of child development and the research stimulated by them provide the foundation for sound, effective practices with children. The links among theory, research, and applications are reinforced by an organizational format in which theory and research are presented first, followed by practical implications. In addition, a current focus in the field—harnessing child development knowledge to shape social policies that support children’s xv needs—is reflected in every chapter. The text addresses the current condition of children in the United States and around the world and shows how theory and research have sparked successful interventions. New Coverage in the Ninth Edition Child development is a fascinating and ever-changing field of study, with constantly emerging new discoveries and refinements in existing knowledge. The ninth edition represents this burgeoning contemporary literature, with more than 1,400 new citations. Cutting-edge topics throughout the text underscore the book’s major themes. Here is a sampling: ■ CHAPTER 1 ■ Introduction to the concept of plasticity within the section on basic issues of development • Revised and updated section on developmental cognitive neuroscience as a new area of investigation • New Social Issues: Health box on how family chaos undermines children’s well-being, illustrating the power of the exosystem to affect development • Expanded and updated section on child development and social policy • Updated Social Issues: Health box on the impact of welfare reform on children’s development, with U.S. welfare reform policies compared to those of other Western nations CHAPTER 2 ■ Attention throughout to the advantages of combining research methods and designs • New examples of research using systematic observation, structured interviews, correlational design, field experimentation, and microgenetic design • Expanded and updated section on neurobiological methods, including salivary cortisol as a measure of stress reactivity and new approaches to assessing brain functioning, including the geodesic sensor net (GSN) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) • Updated Biology and Environment box on prenatal iron deficiency and memory impairments in infants of diabetic mothers, illustrating research using event-related potentials (ERPs) • Updated Cultural Influences box on immigrant youths ■ CHAPTER 3 ■ Updated Social Issues: Health box on the pros and cons of reproductive technologies • Enhanced attention to fetal brain development and behavior • Updated consideration of a wide range of teratogens • New evidence on the long-term consequences of emotional stress during pregnancy • New findings on older maternal age and prenatal and birth complications • Updated Social Issues: Health box on health care and other policies for parents and newborn babies, including the importance of generous parental leave • Introduction to the concept of gene–environment interaction, with illustrative research findings • Expanded section on epigenesis, including new examples of environmental influences on gene expression ■ ■ CHAPTER 4 ■ Enhanced attention to cultural influences— including infant sleep, gross- and fine-motor development, and xvi PREFACE perceptual development • New evidence on the impact of “proximal care”—extensive holding of young babies—on reducing infant crying • Updated findings on how environmental factors, including caregiving practices and the baby’s physical surroundings, contribute to motor development • New evidence on the perceptual narrowing effect in speech, music, and species-related face perception and in gender- and race-related face perception • New research on development of object perception, including the role of object manipulation • Expanded and updated research on intermodal perception and its contributions to all aspects of psychological development • New findings on children adopted from Romanian orphanages bearing on the question of whether infancy is a sensitive period of development ■ CHAPTER 5 ■ Updated Social Issues: Education box on sex differences in gross motor development, including the role of physical education • Updated consideration of advances in brain development, with special attention to the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala • New section on adolescent brain development • Updated Biology and Environment box on low-level lead exposure and children’s development • Expanded attention to the impact of adult mealtime practices on children’s eating behaviors • Revised and updated section on overweight and obesity, including current U.S. prevalence rates, international comparisons, and coverage of contributing factors and health and psychological consequences • New research on infants with growth faltering, highlighting the joint contributions of feeding difficulties and a disturbed parent–infant relationship • New findings on media exposure to sexual content and teenage sexual activity • New evidence on key elements of effective sex education programs • Updated research on adolescent parenthood, including long-term adjustment of adolescent parents and their children and effective interventions CHAPTER 6 ■ Updated section on infant and toddler imitation, revealing toddlers’ ability to infer others’ intentions • New section on symbolic understanding, including toddlers’ developing grasp of words and pictures as symbolic tools • New Social Issues: Education box on baby learning from TV and video, including discussion of the video deficit effect and the negative impact of extensive early TV viewing • Updated Cultural Influences box on social origins of make-believe play • New evidence on preschoolers’ magical beliefs • Enhanced discussion of school-age children’s spatial reasoning, with special attention to map skills • Expanded consideration of infants’ numerical knowledge, including capacity to discriminate ratios and to represent approximate large-number values • Expanded and updated research on adolescent decision making • New evidence on cultural variations in parental scaffolding of young children’s mastery of challenging tasks • New findings on benefits of cooperative learning ■ CHAPTER 7 ■ Enhanced and updated consideration of working memory, its assessment, and its implications for learning and academic achievement • New section on executive function and its component processes • Expanded section on inhibition and its contribution to many information-processing ■ skills • Updated Biology and Environment box on children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) • New Social Issues: Education box on the impact of “media multitasking” on learning • Revised and enhanced attention to development of episodic memory, including the relationship between semantic and episodic memory • New research on children’s eyewitness memory • Enhanced discussion of differences between preschoolers from middle-income and low-income families in emergent literacy and math knowledge, including interventions that reduce the gap ■ CHAPTER 8 ■ Updated Social Issues: Education box on emotional intelligence • Updated evidence on neurobiological correlates of mental test performance • New findings on IQ as a predictor of psychological adjustment • New evidence on how culturally acquired knowledge affects reasoning on mental test items • Enhanced Social Issues: Education box on highstakes testing, including the impact of the U.S. No Child Left Behind Act on quality of American education • Enhanced consideration of the potential for supplementary programs to strengthen the impact of Head Start and other preschool programs serving low-income children CHAPTER 9 ■ Updated research on categorical speech perception in humans and other animals • New evidence on the contributions of joint attention and preverbal gestures to early language development • Updated findings on toddlers’ earliest spoken words, including cultural variations • New findings on how phonological features of the child’s native language influence early vocabulary growth • Enhanced consideration of research on young children’s grammatical knowledge, including the influence of native-language syntactic forms • Updated research on consequences of bilingualism for cognitive and language development • Enhanced attention to the impact of bilingual education on academic achievement and long-term educational and occupational attainment ■ ■ CHAPTER 10 ■ Updated consideration of the dynamic systems perspective on development of emotional expression • Updated evidence on contributions of language development and parenting to preschoolers’ emotional self-regulation • New research on consequences of effortful control for cognitive, emotional, and social development • New findings on goodness of fit, with special attention to the interacting roles of genotype and parenting on child difficultness • Updated section on consequences of early availability of a consistent caregiver for attachment security, emotion processing, and adjustment, highlighting studies of children adopted from Eastern European orphanages • New findings on the joint contributions of infant genotype, temperament, and parenting to disorganized/disoriented attachment • New evidence on contributions of fathers’ play to attachment security and emotional and social adjustment • Revised and updated Social Issues: Health box on child care, attachment, and later adjustment • New section on grandparents as primary caregivers CHAPTER 11 ■ New findings on development of explicit body self-awareness in the second year, including scale errors • ■ PREFACE New evidence on cognitive attainments and social experiences that contribute to preschoolers’ mastery of false belief • Updated research on the school-age child’s theory of mind, including development of recursive thought • Expanded section on implications of theory-of-mind development for social skills • Updated Biology and Environment box on “mindblindness” and autism • New evidence on preschoolers’ selfconcepts, including their emerging grasp of personality traits • New findings on the contribution of parent–child conversations about the past to early self-concept • Enhanced attention to cultural variations in self-concept • New research on personal and social factors contributing to identity development in adolescence • Updated Social Issues: Health box on adolescent suicide • Enhanced section on children’s understanding of social groups, racial and ethnic prejudice, and strategies for reducing prejudice • New evidence on the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum, a widely applied intervention for enhancing preschoolers’ social problem solving CHAPTER 12 ■ New evidence on the relationship of early corporal punishment to later behavior problems, including cross-cultural findings • Enhanced consideration of factors that promote moral identity, along with its relationship to moral commitment • Updated Social Issues: Education box on development of civic responsibility • New findings on socialcognitive deficits and distortions of aggressive children • Updated Cultural Influences box on the impact of ethnic and political violence on children, with expanded attention to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks • New section on parent training programs to reduce child conduct problems, with special attention to Incredible Years ■ ■ CHAPTER 13 ■ New evidence on parents’ differential expectations for boys’ and girls’ academic achievement • Revised Cultural Influences box on Sweden’s commitment to gender equality, with coverage of Swedish “daddy-months” aimed at encouraging fathers’ involvement in child rearing • Updated findings on teachers’ differential treatment of boys and girls • New research on the power of observed sex differences in adults’ occupations to affect children’s occupational interests • New Social Issues: Education box on teaching children to challenge peers’ sexist remarks • Updated evidence on gender intensification in adolescence • Updated consideration of factors contributing to sex differences in verbal, mathematical, and spatial abilities • New findings on sex differences in adolescent depression ■ CHAPTER 14 ■ Updated evidence on the impact of neighborhood poverty on family functioning, including communitywide prevention efforts of the Better Beginnings, Better Futures Project • New research on long-term, favorable consequences of authoritative child rearing • Updated section on parenting and adolescent autonomy, including research on immigrant families • New evidence on socioeconomic variations in parenting • Updated research on family size and parenting quality • New findings on sibling relationships, including cultural influences and interventions to reduce sibling animosity xvii • Updated discussion of the one-child policy in China • New research on gay and lesbian families, including children’s adjustment and gender identity • Expanded attention to the role of fathers in children’s development, with special attention to the transition to parenthood, blended families, and dualcareer families • Updated consideration of the consequences of child maltreatment CHAPTER 15 ■ Updated research on parental influences on peer sociability • New findings on the role of positive peer relations in school readiness • New research on characteristics of adolescent friendships, including implications of other-sex friends for adjustment • Updated findings on Internet friendships, with special attention to teenagers’ use of social networking sites • Updated Biology and Environment box on bullies and their victims • Expanded consideration of the impact of biased teacher judgments on ethnic minority children’s academic achievement • New statistics on U.S. children and adolescents’ use of diverse media forms, including TV, computers, and cell phones • Updated evidence on the influence of various media activities, including TV, video games, texting, and social networking sites, on development and adjustment • New research on the educational consequences of widespread SES and ethnic segregation in American schools • New Social Issues: Education box on magnet schools as a means of attaining equal access to high-quality education • Revised and updated section on U.S. academic achievement in international perspective, including education in the high-performing nations of Finland, Korea, Japan, and Taiwan ■ Acknowledgments The dedicated contributions of many individuals helped make this book a reality and contributed to refinements and improvements in each edition. An impressive cast of reviewers provided many helpful suggestions, constructive criticisms, and encouragement and enthusiasm for the organization and content of the book. I am grateful to each one of them. Reviewers for the First Through Eighth Editions Martha W. Alibali, University of Wisconsin, Madison Ellen Altermatt, Hanover College Daniel Ashmead, Vanderbilt University Margarita Azmitia, University of California, Santa Cruz Catherine L. Bagwell, University of Richmond Lorraine Bahrick, Florida International University Lynne Baker-Ward, North Carolina State University David Baskind, Delta College Carole R. Beal, University of Massachusetts Rebecca S. Bigler, University of Texas, Austin Dana W. Birnbaum, University of Maine at Orono Kathryn N. Black, Purdue University Paul Bloom, Yale University James H. Bodle, College of Mount Saint Joseph xviii PREFACE Cathryn L. Booth, University of Washington J. Paul Boudreau, University of Prince Edward Island Sam Boyd, University of Central Arkansas Darlene A. Brodeur, Acadia University Celia A. Brownell, University of Pittsburgh M. Michele Burnette, Community College of Allegheny County Lori Camparo, Whittier College Toni A. Campbell, San Jose State University M. Beth Casey, Boston College Robert Cohen, University of Memphis John Condry, Cornell University Robert Coplan, Carleton University Rhoda Cummings, University of Nevada, Reno James L. Dannemiller, University of Wisconsin, Madison Zoe Ann Davidson, Alabama A & M University Teddi Deka, Missouri Western State University Laura DeRose, Adelphi University Darlene DeSantis, West Chester University Nancy Digdon, Grant MacEwan College Rebecca Eder, Bryn Mawr College Richard Ely, Boston University Claire Etaugh, Bradley University Bill Fabricius, Arizona State University Beverly Fagot, University of Oregon Francine Favretto, University of Maryland Larry Fenson, San Diego State University Jayne Gackenbach, Grant MacEwan College James Garbarino, Cornell University Jane F. Gaultney, University of North Carolina, Charlotte John C. Gibbs, Ohio State University Peter Gordon, University of Pittsburgh Katherine Green, Millersville University Suzanne Gurland, Middlebury College Craig H. Hart, Brigham Young University Joyce A. Hemphill, University of Wisconsin, Madison Kenneth Hill, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax Alice S. Honig, Syracuse University Nina Howe, Concordia University Carla L. Hudson Kam, University of California, Berkeley Janis Jacobs, Pennsylvania State University Scott P. Johnson, New York University Patricia K. Kerig, Miami University of Ohio Katherine Kipp, University of Georgia Paul Klaczynski, Pennsylvania State University Mareile Koenig, George Washington University Hospital Claire Kopp, Claremont Graduate School Beth Kurtz-Costes, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Gary W. Ladd, Arizona State University Daniel Lapsley, Ball State University Frank Laycock, Oberlin College Elise Lehman, George Mason University Mary D. Leinbach, University of Oregon Richard Lerner, Tufts University Marc Lewis, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto Wilma M. Marshall, Douglas College Robert S. Marvin, University of Virginia Catherine Massey, Slippery Rock University Ashley E. Maynard, University of Hawaii Tom McBride, Princeton University Carolyn J. Mebert, University of New Hampshire Gary B. Melton, University of Nebraska, Lincoln Mary Evelyn Moore, Illinois State University Brad Morris, Grand Valley State University Lois Muir, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse John P. Murray, Kansas State University Bonnie K. Nastasi, State University of New York at Albany Geoff Navara, Trent University David A. Nelson, Brigham Young University Simone Nguyen, University of North Carolina, Wilmington Larry Nucci, University of Illinois at Chicago Peter Ornstein, University of North Carolina Randall Osbourne, Indiana University East Carol Pandey, Pierce College, Los Angeles Thomas S. Parish, Kansas State University B. Kay Pasley, Colorado State University Kathy Pezdek, Claremont Graduate School Ellen F. Potter, University of South Carolina at Columbia Kimberly K. Powlishta, Northern Illinois University Kathleen Preston, Humboldt State University Bud Protinsky, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Daniel Reschly, Iowa State University Stephen Reznick, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Rosemary Rosser, University of Arizona Alan Russell, Flinders University Jane Ann Rysberg, California State University, Chico Phil Schoggen, Cornell University Maria E. Sera, University of Iowa Beth Shapiro, Emory University Susan Siaw, California State Polytechnic University Linda Siegel, University of British Columbia Robert Siegler, Carnegie Mellon University Barbara B. Simon, Midlands Technical College Leher Singh, Boston University Gregory J. Smith, Dickinson College Robert J. Sternberg, Yale University Harold Stevenson, University of Michigan Daniel Swingley, University of Pennsylvania Doug Symons, Acadia University Lorraine Taylor, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Ross A. Thompson, University of California, Davis Barbara A. Tinsley, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign Kim F. Townley, University of Kentucky Tracy Vaillancourt, McMaster University Janet Valadez, Pan American University Cecilia Wainryb, University of Utah Susan K. Walker, University of Maryland Amye R. Warren, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Wenfan Yan, Indiana University of Pennsylvania Yiyuan Xu, University of Hawaii Laura Zimmermann, Shenandoah University Reviewers for the Ninth Edition Rebecca Bigler, University of Texas, Austin Natasha Cabrera, University of Maryland Beth Casey, Boston College John Gibbs, Ohio State University Sara Harkness, University of Connecticut Maria Hernandez-Reif, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa PREFACE Scott P. Johnson, University of California, Los Angeles Michelle L. Kelley, Old Dominion University Karen LaParo, University of North Carolina, Greensboro Angela F. Lukowski, University of California, Irvine Michael Morales, State University of New York College at Plattsburgh David A. Nelson, Brigham Young University Larry Nelson, Brigham Young University Anna Shusterman, Wesleyan University Doug Symons, Acadia University Tracy Vaillancourt, McMaster University Cecilia Wainryb, University of Utah Corinne Zimmerman, Illinois State University An outstanding editorial staff in my home community contributed immeasurably to the entire project. Sara Harris, Supplements Editor and visiting assistant professor of psychology, Bradley University, coordinated the preparation of the teaching ancillaries and wrote major sections of the Instructor’s Resource Manual, bringing to these tasks great depth of knowledge, impressive writing skill, enthusiasm, and imagination. Amelia Benner and Rachel Trapp, Editorial Assistants, spent countless hours searching, gathering, and organizing scholarly literature. Rachel also assisted with specifications for several highly creative MyDevelopmentLab simulations, contributed to the Explorations in Child Development video guide, designed the text’s back cover, and expertly handled many additional tasks as they arose. I have been fortunate to work with a highly capable editorial team at Pearson Education. It has been a great pleasure to work once again with Tom Pauken, Managing Editor, who oversaw the preparation of the sixth edition of Child Development and who returned to edit its ninth edition. His careful review of manuscript, keen organizational skills, responsive day-to-day communication, insightful suggestions, astute problem solving, interest in the subject matter, and thoughtfulness have greatly enhanced the quality of the text and made its preparation especially enjoyable and rewarding. Judy Ashkenaz and Lisa McLellan, Development Editors, carefully reviewed and commented on each chapter, helping to ensure that every thought and concept would be clearly expressed and well-developed. My appreciation, also, to Jessica Mosher, Editor in Chief of Psychology, for reorganizing the management of my projects to xix enable the focused work that is vital for precise, inspired writing. The supplements package benefited from the talents and diligence of several other individuals. Leah Shiro carefully revised the chapter summaries and outlines in the Instructor’s Resource Manual. Kimberly Michaud and Cheryl Wilms prepared the superb Test Bank and MyDevelopmentLab assessments. Diana Murphy designed and wrote a highly attractive PowerPoint presentation. Maria Henneberry and Phil Vandiver of Contemporary Visuals in Bloomington, IL, prepared an extraordinarily artistic and inspiring set of new video segments covering diverse topics in child development. Donna Simons, Senior Production Project Manager, coordinated the complex production tasks that resulted in an exquisitely beautiful ninth edition. I am grateful for her keen aesthetic sense, attention to detail, flexibility, efficiency, and thoughtfulness. I thank Sarah Evertson for obtaining the exceptional photographs that so aptly illustrate the text narrative. I am also grateful for Judy Ashkenaz’s fine contributions to the photo specifications and captions. Margaret Pinette, Bill Heckman, and Julie Hotchkiss provided outstanding copyediting and proofreading. Wendy Albert, Executive Marketing Manager, prepared the beautiful print ads and informative e-mails to the field about Child Development, Ninth Edition. She has also ensured that accurate and clear information reached Pearson Education’s sales force and that the needs of prospective and current adopters were met. A final word of gratitude goes to my family, whose love, patience, and understanding have enabled me to be wife, mother, teacher, researcher, and text author at the same time. My sons, David and Peter, grew up with my texts, passing from childhood to adolescence and then to adulthood as successive editions were written. David has a special connection with the books’ subject matter as an elementary school teacher, and Peter is now an experienced attorney and married to his vivacious, talented, and caring Melissa. All three continue to enrich my understanding through reflections on events and progress in their own lives. My husband, Ken, willingly made room for yet another time-consuming endeavor in our life together and communicated his belief in its importance in a great many unspoken, caring ways. About the Cover and Chapter-Opening Art I would like to extend grateful acknowledgments to the International Museum of Children’s Art, Oslo, Norway, and to the International Child Art Foundation, Washington, D.C.; to the World Awareness Children’s Museum, Glens Falls, New York; and to the International Collection of Child Art, Milner Library, Illinois State University, for the exceptional cover image and chapter-opening art, which depict the talents, concerns, and viewpoints of child and adolescent artists from around the world. The awe-inspiring collection of children’s art gracing this text expresses family, school, and community themes; good times and personal triumphs; profound appreciation for beauty; and great depth of emotion. I am pleased to share with readers this window into children’s creativity, insightfulness, sensitivity, and compassion. C H A P T E R 1 “Untitled” Patrick, 15 years, New Mexico This artist represents his Taos Pueblo culture with intricate patterns and rainbows of color. As the theories reviewed in this chapter reveal, a similarly complex blend of genetic, family, community, and societal forces influences child development. Reprinted with permission from the International Collection of Child Art, Milner Library, Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois 2 History, Theory, and Applied Directions The Field of Child Development Domains of Development • Periods of Development Basic Issues ot long ago, I left my Midwestern home to live for a year near the small city in northern California where I spent my childhood. One morning, I visited the neighborhood where I grew up—a place I had not seen since I was 12 years old. I stood at the entrance to my old schoolyard. Buildings and grounds that had looked large to me as a child now seemed strangely small. I peered through the window of my first-grade classroom. The desks were no longer arranged in rows but grouped in intimate clusters. Computers rested against the far wall, near where I once sat. I walked my old route home from school, the distance shrunken by my longer stride. I stopped in front of my best friend Kathryn’s house, where we once drew sidewalk pictures, crossed the street to play kickball, and produced plays in the garage. In place of the small shop where I had purchased penny candy stood a child-care center, filled with the voices and vigorous activity of toddlers and preschoolers. As I walked, I reflected on early experiences that contributed to who I am and what I am like today—weekends helping my father in his downtown clothing shop, the year my mother studied to become a high school teacher, moments of companionship and rivalry with my sister and brother, Sunday outings to museums and the seashore, and visits to my grandmother’s house, where I became someone extra special. As I passed the homes of my childhood friends, I thought of what I knew about the course of their lives. Kathryn, star pupil and president of our sixth-grade class—today a successful corporate lawyer and mother of two. Shy, withdrawn Phil, cruelly teased because of his cleft lip—now owner of a thriving chain of hardware stores and member of the city council. Julio, immigrant from Mexico who joined our class in third grade— today director of an elementary school bilingual education program and single parent of an adopted Mexican boy. And finally, my next-door neighbor Rick, who picked fights at recess, struggled with reading, repeated fourth grade, dropped out of high school, and (so I heard) moved from one job to another over the following 10 years. As you begin this course in child development, perhaps you, too, are wondering about some of the same questions that crossed my mind during that nostalgic neighborhood walk: N ● ● ● ● ● ● Continuous or Discontinuous Development? • One Course of Development or Many? • Relative Influence of Nature and Nurture? • A Balanced Point of View ■ BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Resilient Children Historical Foundations Medieval Times • The Reformation • Philosophies of the Enlightenment • Scientific Beginnings Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories The Psychoanalytic Perspective • Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory • Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory Recent Theoretical Perspectives Information Processing • Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience • Ethology and Evolutionary Developmental Psychology • Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory • Ecological Systems Theory • New Directions: Development as a Dynamic System ■ CULTURAL INFLUENCES: !Kung Infancy: Acquiring Culture ■ SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH: Family Chaos Undermines Children’s Well-Being Comparing Child Development Theories Applied Directions: Child Development and Social Policy Culture and Public Policies • Contributions of Child Development Research • Looking Toward the Future ■ SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Child Development In what ways are children’s home, school, and neighborhood experiences the same today as they were in generations past, and in what ways are they different? How are the infant’s and young child’s perceptions of the world the same as the adult’s, and how are they different? What determines the features that humans have in common and those that make each of us unique—physically, mentally, and behaviorally? How did Julio, transplanted at age 8 to a new culture, master its language and customs and succeed in its society, yet remain strongly identified with his ethnic community? Why do some of us, like Kathryn and Rick, retain the same styles of responding that characterized us as children, whereas others, like Phil, change in essential ways? How do cultural changes—employed mothers, child care, divorce, smaller families, and new technologies—affect children’s characteristics? 3 4 PART I Theory and Research in Child Development These are central questions addressed by child development, an area of study devoted to understanding constancy and change from conception through adolescence. Child development is part of a larger, interdisciplinary field known as developmental science, which includes all changes we experience throughout the lifespan (Lerner, 2006). Great diversity characterizes the interests and concerns of the thousands of investigators who study child development. But all have a common goal: to describe and identify those factors that influence the consistencies and changes in young people during the first two decades of life. ■ What is the field of child development, and what factors stimulated its expansion? How is child development typically divided into domains and periods? The Field of Child Development The questions just listed are not just of scientific interest. Each has applied, or practical, importance as well. In fact, scientific curiosity is just one factor that led child development to become the exciting field of study it is today. Research about development has also been stimulated by social pressures to improve the lives of children. For example, the beginning of public education in the early twentieth century led to a demand for knowledge about what and how to teach children of different ages. Pediatricians’ interest in improving children’s health required an understanding of physical growth and nutrition. The social service profession’s desire to treat children’s anxieties and behavior problems required information about personality and social development. And parents have continually sought advice about child-rearing practices and experiences that would promote their children’s development and well-being. Our large storehouse of information about child development is interdisciplinary. It has grown through the combined efforts of people from many fields. Because of the need to solve everyday problems concerning children, researchers from psychology, sociology, anthropology, biology, and neuroscience have joined forces with professionals from education, family studies, medicine, public health, and social service—to name just a few. The field of child development, as it exists today, is a monument to the contributions of these many disciplines. Its body of knowledge is not just scientifically important but also relevant and useful. Domains of Development To make the vast, interdisciplinary study of human constancy and change more orderly and convenient, development is often divided into three broad domains: physical, cognitive, and emotional and social. Refer to Figure 1.1 for a description and illustration of each. In this book, we will largely consider the domains of development in the order just mentioned. Yet the domains are not really distinct. Rather, they combine in an integrated, holistic fashion to yield the living, growing child. Furthermore, each domain influences and is influenced by the others. For example, in Chapter 4, you will see that new motor capacities, such as reaching, sitting, crawling, and walking (physical), contribute greatly to infants’ understanding of their surroundings (cognitive). When babies think and act more competently, adults stimulate them more with games, language, and expressions of delight at their new achievements (emotional and social). These enriched experiences, in turn, promote all aspects of development. You will encounter instances of the interwoven nature of all domains on almost every page of this book. In the margins of the text, you will find occasional Look and Listen activities—opportunities for you to see everyday illustrations of development by observing what real children say and do or by attending to everyday influences on children. Through these experiences, I hope to make your study of development more authentic and meaningful. © T IM GRAHAM /AL AM Y CO URIE R/ST E VE W ARM O W SKI/T HE IM AGE W O RKS CHAPTER 1 History, Theory, and Applied Directions © R O N N I E KA UF M A N /CO R BI S Physical Development Changes in body size, proportions, appearance, functioning of body systems, perceptual and motor capacities, and physical health FIGURE 1.1 Cognitive Development Changes in intellectual abilities, including attention, memory, academic and everyday knowledge, problem solving, imagination, creativity, and language Emotional and Social Development Changes in emotional communication, self-understanding, knowledge about other people, interpersonal skills, friendships, intimate relationships, and moral reasoning and behavior Major domains of development. The three domains are not really distinct. Rather, they overlap and interact. Also, look for the Ask Yourself feature at the end of major sections, designed to deepen your understanding. Within it, I have included Review questions, which help you recall and think about information you have just read; Connect questions, which help you form a coherent, unified picture of child development; Apply questions, which encourage you to apply your knowledge to controversial issues and problems faced by parents, teachers, and children; and Reflect questions, which invite you to reflect on your own development and that of people you know well. Periods of Development Besides distinguishing and integrating the three domains, another dilemma arises in discussing development: how to divide the flow of time into sensible, manageable parts. Researchers usually use the following age periods, as each brings new capacities and social expectations that serve as important transitions in major theories: 1. The prenatal period: from conception to birth. In this nine-month period, the most rapid time of change, a one-celled organism is transformed into a human baby with remarkable capacities for adjusting to life in the surrounding world. 2. Infancy and toddlerhood: from birth to 2 years. This period brings dramatic changes in the body and brain that support the emergence of a wide array of motor, perceptual, and intellectual capacities; the beginnings of language; and first intimate ties to others. Infancy spans the first year; toddlerhood spans the second, during which children take their first independent steps, marking a shift to greater autonomy. 3. Early childhood: from 2 to 6 years. The body becomes longer and leaner, motor skills are refined, and children become more self-controlled and self-sufficient. Make-believe play blossoms, supporting every aspect of psychological development. Thought and language 5 PART I Theory and Research in Child Development © UW E O M M E R, 1 , 0 0 0 FAM IL IES, TASCHE N E D 6 Child development is so dramatic that researchers divide it into periods. This large family of the Ivory Coast includes children in infancy, early childhood (boy in front row, girl seated in second row), middle childhood (girl in front row, girl standing in second row), and adolescence (girl standing in center). Identify three basic issues on which child development theories take a stand. expand at an astounding pace, a sense of morality becomes evident, and children establish ties with peers. 4. Middle childhood: from 6 to 11 years. Children learn about the wider world and master new responsibilities that increasingly resemble those they will perform as adults. Hallmarks of this period are improved athletic abilities; participation in organized games with rules; more logical thought processes; mastery of fundamental reading, writing, math, and other academic knowledge and skills; and advances in understanding the self, morality, and friendship. 5. Adolescence: from 11 to 18 years. This period initiates the transition to adulthood. Puberty leads to an adult-sized body and sexual maturity. Thought becomes abstract and idealistic, and schooling is increasingly directed toward preparation for higher education and the world of work. Young people begin to establish autonomy from the family and to define personal values and goals. For many contemporary youths in industrialized nations, the transition to adult roles has become increasingly prolonged—so much so that some researchers have posited a new period of development called emerging adulthood, which spans ages 18 to 25. Although emerging adults have moved beyond adolescence, they have not yet fully assumed adult roles. Rather, during higher education and sometimes beyond, these young people intensify their exploration of options in love, career, and personal values before making enduring commitments. Because emerging adulthood first became apparent during the past few decades, researchers have just begun to study it (Arnett, 2007; Arnett & Tanner, 2006). Perhaps it is your period of development. In later chapters, we will touch on milestones of emerging adulthood, which build on adolescent attainments. To find out more about this period, consult the mini-chapter entitled “Emerging Adulthood,” available as an online supplement to this text. With this introduction in mind, let’s turn to some basic issues that have captivated, puzzled, and sparked debate among child development theorists. Then our discussion will trace the emergence of the field and survey major theories. Basic Issues Research on child development did not begin until the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. But ideas about how children grow and change have a much longer history. As these speculations combined with research, they inspired the construction of theories of development. A theory is an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior. For example, a good theory of infant–caregiver attachment would (1) describe the behaviors of babies around 6 to 8 months of age as they seek the affection and comfort of a familiar adult, (2) explain how and why infants develop this strong desire to bond with a caregiver, and (3) predict the consequences of this emotional bond for future relationships. Theories are vital tools for two reasons. First, they provide organizing frameworks for our observations of children. In other words, they guide and give meaning to what we see. Second, theories that are verified by research often serve as a sound basis for practical action. Once a theory helps us understand development, we are in a much better position to know how to improve the welfare and treatment of children. CHAPTER 1 History, Theory, and Applied Directions 7 As we will see later, theories are influenced by cultural values and belief systems of their times. But theories differ in one important way from mere opinion and belief: A theory’s continued existence depends on scientific verification. This means that the theory must be tested using a fair set of research procedures agreed on by the scientific community, and its findings must endure, or be replicated over time. (We will consider research strategies in Chapter 2.) Within the field of child development, many theories offer very different ideas about what children are like and how they change. The study of child development provides no ultimate truth because investigators do not always agree on the meaning of what they see. Also, children are complex beings; they change physically, cognitively, emotionally, and socially. No single theory has explained all these aspects. But the existence of many theories helps advance knowledge as researchers continually try to support, contradict, and integrate these different points of view. Although there are many theories, we can easily organize them by looking at the stand they take on three basic issues: (1) Is the course of development continuous or discontinuous? (2) Does one course of development characterize all children, or are there many possible courses? (3) What are the roles of genetic and environmental factors—nature and nurture—in development? Let’s look closely at each of these issues. Continuous or Discontinuous Development? Recently, the mother of 20-month-old Angelo reported to me with amazement that her young son had pushed a toy car across the living room floor while making a motorlike sound, “Brmmmm, brmmmm,” for the first time. When he hit a nearby wall with a bang, FIGURE 1.2 Is development Angelo let go of the car, exclaimed, “C’ash,” and laughed heartily. continuous or discontinuous? “How come Angelo can pretend, but he couldn’t a few months ago?” his mother asked. (a) Some theorists believe that “And I wonder what ‘Brrmmmm, brmmmm’ and ‘Crash!’ mean to Angelo? Does he underdevelopment is a smooth, continustand motorlike sounds and collision the same way I do?” ous process. Children gradually add more of the same types of skills. Angelo’s mother has raised a puzzling issue about development: How can we best (b) Other theorists think that develdescribe the differences in capacities and behavior among small infants, young children, opment takes place in discontinuous adolescents, and adults? As Figure 1.2 illustrates, major theories recognize two possibilities. stages. Children change rapidly as One view holds that infants and preschoolers respond to the world in much the same they step up to a new level of develway as adults do. The difference between the immature and the mature being is simply one opment and then change very little for a while. With each step, the child of amount or complexity. For example, little Angelo’s thinking might be just as logical and interprets and responds to the world well-organized as our own. Perhaps (as his mother reports) he can sort objects into simple in a qualitatively different way. categories, recognize whether he has more of one kind than another, and remember where he left his favorite toy at child care the week before. Angelo’s only limitation may be that he cannot perform these skills with as much information and precision as we can. If this is so, then Angelo’s development is continuous—a process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with. According to a second view, Angelo’s thoughts, emotions, and behavior differ considerably from those of adults. His development is discontinuous—a process in which new ways of underInfancy Adulthood Infancy Adulthood standing and responding to the world (a) Continuous Development (b) Discontinuous Development emerge at specific times. From this perspective, Angelo is not yet able to 8 PART I Theory and Research in Child Development organize objects or remember and interpret experiences as we do. Instead, he will move through a series of developmental steps, each with unique features, until he reaches the highest level of functioning. Theories that accept the discontinuous perspective regard development as taking place in stages—qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development. In stage theories, development is much like climbing a staircase, with each step corresponding to a more mature, reorganized way of functioning. The stage concept also assumes that children undergo periods of rapid transformation as they step up from one stage to the next, alternating with plateaus during which they stand solidly within a stage. In other words, change is fairly sudden rather than gradual and ongoing. Does development actually occur in a neat, orderly sequence of stages? This ambitious assumption has faced significant challenges. Later in this chapter, we will review some influential stage theories. One Course of Development or Many? © EL I ZA BETH CR EW S /TH E I M A GE WO R KS Stage theorists assume that people everywhere follow the same sequence of development. For example, in the domain of cognition, a stage theorist might try to identify the common influences that lead children to represent their world through language and make-believe play in early childhood, to think more logically in middle childhood, and to reason more systematically and abstractly in adolescence. At the same time, the field of child development is becoming increasingly aware that children grow up in distinct contexts—unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change. For example, a shy child who fears social encounters develops in very different contexts from those of a sociable agemate who readily seeks out other people (Kagan, 2003, 2008). Children in non-Western village societies encounter experiences in their families and communities that differ sharply from those of children in large Western cities. These different circumstances foster different cognitive capacities, social skills, and feelings about the self and others (Shweder et al., 2006). As you will see, contemporary theorists regard the contexts that mold development as many-layered and complex. On the personal side, these include heredity and biological makeup. On the environmental side, they include both immediate settings—home, child-care center, school, and neighborhood—and circumstances that are more remote from children’s everyday lives: community resources, societal values and priorities, and historical time period. Finally, researchers today are more conscious than ever before of cultural diversity in development. Relative Influence of Nature and Nurture? Will this toddler’s tantrums extend into a lifelong pattern of difficult behavior? Some theorists, stressing the importance of heredity, believe she will remain hard to manage. Others think that change is possible, depending on how the mother handles her child’s emotional outbursts. In addition to describing the course of development, each theory takes a stand on a major question about its underlying causes: Are genetic or environmental factors more important in influencing development? This is the age-old nature–nurture controversy. By nature, we mean inborn biological givens—the hereditary information we receive from our parents at the moment of conception. By nurture, we mean the complex forces of the physical and social world that influence our biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth. Although all theories grant roles to both nature and nurture, they vary in emphasis. Consider the following questions: Is the older child’s ability to think in more complex ways largely the result of an inborn timetable of growth, or is it primarily influenced by stimulation from parents and teachers? Do children acquire language because they are CHAPTER 1 History, Theory, and Applied Directions genetically predisposed to do so or because parents intensively teach them from an early age? And what accounts for the vast individual differences among children—in height, weight, physical coordination, intelligence, personality, and social skills? Is nature or nurture more responsible? A theory’s position on the roles of nature and nurture affects how it explains individual differences. Some theorists emphasize stability—that children who are high or low in a characteristic (such as verbal ability, anxiety, or sociability) will remain so at later ages. These theorists typically stress the importance of heredity. If they regard environment as important, they usually point to early experiences as establishing a lifelong pattern of behavior. Powerful negative events in the first few years, they argue, cannot be fully overcome by later, more positive ones (Bowlby, 1980; Johnson, 2000; Sroufe, 2005). Other theorists, taking a more optimistic view, see development as having substantial plasticity throughout life—as open to change in response to influential experiences (Baltes, Lindenberger, & Staudinger, 2006; Lerner & Overton, 2008; Lester, Masten, & McEwen, 2006). Throughout this book, you will see that investigators disagree, often sharply, on the question of stability versus plasticity. Their answers have great applied significance. If you believe that development is largely due to nature, then providing experiences aimed at promoting change would seem to be of little value. If, on the other hand, you are convinced of the supreme importance of early experience, then you would intervene as soon as possible, offering high-quality stimulation and support to ensure that children develop at their best. Finally, if you think that environment is profoundly influential throughout development, you would provide assistance any time children or adolescents face difficulties, in the belief that, with the help of favorable life circumstances, they can recover from early negative events. A Balanced Point of View So far, we have discussed the basic issues of child development in terms of extremes—solutions favoring one side or the other. But as we trace the unfolding of the field in the rest of this chapter, you will see that the positions of many theorists have softened. Today, some theorists believe that both continuous and discontinuous changes occur. Many acknowledge that development has both universal features and features unique to each individual and his or her contexts. And a growing number regard heredity and environment as inseparably interwoven, each affecting the potential of the other to modify the child’s traits and capacities (Cole, 2006; Gottlieb, Wahlsten, & Lickliter, 2006; Lerner, 2006; Rutter, 2007). We will discuss these new ideas about nature and nurture in Chapter 3. Finally, as you will see later in this book, the relative impact of early and later experiences varies greatly from one domain of development to another and even—as the Biology and Environment box on pages 10–11 indicates—across individuals! Because of the complex network of factors contributing to human change and the challenge of isolating the effects of each, many theoretical viewpoints have gathered research support. Although debate continues, this circumstance has also sparked more balanced visions of child development. A S K Y O U R S E L F Review ■ What is meant by a stage of development? Provide your own example of stagewise change. What stand do stage theorists take on the issue of continuous versus discontinuous development? Connect ■ Provide an example of how one domain of development (physical, cognitive, or emotional/social) can affect development in another domain. Apply ■ Anna, a high school counselor, has devised a program that integrates classroom learning with vocational training to help adolescents at risk for school dropout stay in school and transition smoothly to work life. What is Anna’s position on stability versus plasticity in development? Explain. Reflect ■ Cite an aspect of your development that differs from a parent’s or grandparent’s when he or she was your age. How might contexts explain this difference? 9 10 PART I Theory and Research in Child Development BIOLOGY and ENVIRONMENT J ohn and his best friend, Gary, grew up in a run-down, crime-ridden inner-city neighborhood. By age 10, each had experienced years of family conflict followed by parental divorce. Reared for the rest of childhood and adolescence in mother-headed households, John and Gary rarely saw their fathers. Both dropped out of high school and were in and out of trouble with the police. Then their paths diverged. By age 30, John had fathered two children with women he never married, had spent time in prison, was unemployed, and drank alcohol heavily. In contrast, Gary had returned to finish high school, had studied auto mechanics at a community college, and became manager of a gas station and repair shop. Married with two children, he had saved his earnings and bought a home. He was happy, healthy, and well-adapted to life. A wealth of evidence shows that environmental risks— poverty, negative family interactions and parental divorce, job loss, mental illness, and drug abuse—predispose children to future problems (Masten & Gewirtz, 2006; Sameroff, 2006; Wadsworth & Santiago, 2008). Why did Gary “beat the odds” and come through unscathed? Research on resilience—the ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development—is receiving increasing attention as Describe major historical influences on theories of child development. © RO B E RT B RE NNE R/PHOTO E DIT Resilient Children investigators look for ways to protect young people from the damaging effects of stressful life conditions. This interest has been inspired by several long-term studies on the relationship of life stressors in childhood to competence and adjustment in adolescence and adulthood (Fergusson & Horwood, 2003; Masten et al., 1995; Werner & Smith, 2001). In each study, some individuals were shielded from negative outcomes, whereas others had lasting problems. Four broad factors seemed to offer protection from the damaging effects of stressful life events. Personal Characteristics A child’s biologically endowed characteristics can reduce exposure to risk or lead to experiences that compensate for early stressful events. High intelligence and socially valued talents (in music or athletics, for example) increase the chances that a child will have rewarding experiences in school and in the community that offset the impact of a stressful home life. Temperament is particularly powerful. This boy’s close, affectionate relationship with his father promotes resilience. A strong bond with at least one parent who combines warmth with appropriate expectations for maturity can shield children from the damaging effects of stressful life conditions. Historical Foundations Contemporary theories of child development are the result of centuries of change in Western cultural values, philosophical thinking about children, and scientific progress. To understand the field as it exists today, we must return to its early beginnings—to ideas about children that long preceded scientific child study but that linger as important forces in current theory and research. Medieval Times Childhood was regarded as a separate period of life as early as medieval Europe—the sixth through the fifteenth centuries. Medieval painters often depicted children wearing loose, comfortable gowns, playing games, and looking up to adults. Written texts contained terms that distinguished children under age 7 or 8 from other people and that recognized even young teenagers as not fully mature. By the fourteenth century, manuals offering advice on many aspects of child care, including health, feeding, clothing, and games, were common CHAPTER 1 History, Theory, and Applied Directions Children who have easygoing, sociable dispositions and who can readily inhibit negative emotions and impulses tend to have an optimistic outlook on life and a special capacity to adapt to change—qualities that elicit positive responses from others. In contrast, emotionally reactive and irritable children often tax the patience of people around them (Mathiesen & Prior, 2006; Vanderbilt-Adriance & Shaw, 2008; Wong et al., 2006). For example, both